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Psychology 1513 November 4, 2012 Section A The Sisterhood of the Traveling . pants is literature review sites, about a group of scholarship essay, four friends who are going to be split up from each other for the first time in the upcoming summer. The girls are out shopping when they come across a pair of jeans that fits all four of them perfectly even though they are all different shapes and sizes. Lena goes to Greece to visit her grandparents. Literature! While she is romeo essay plan, there she meets. Alexis Bledel , Family , Father 1053 Words | 3 Pages. Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants. Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants Notes Where the Pants were born? “I could tell the pants didn't come to our . lives because of tragedy.” -Carmen Carmen got them at a thrift shop at the outer reaches of Georgetown with Lena, Effie, and literature review, their mother. “The pants were folded innocently on essayeur automobile a shelf by the counter where you pay.

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? Sagging Pants . Cohen, Clare Writing 099-030 December. Dress , Dress code , Education 478 Words | 2 Pages. regularly purchased bolts of sites, cloth from Levi stores to use for his own business. Quindlen Anna! In his letter, he told the prosperous merchant about the interesting way he . made pants for his customers; he placed metal rivets at the points of strain – pocket corners and at the base of the button fly. Davis comes with the idea in order to make the pants stronger for the laboring men who were his customer. So, he needs a business partner in order to patent his new idea and literature sites, he suggest to Levi to join him take out the. Economics , Jeans , Levi Strauss 1988 Words | 7 Pages. Fancy Me Boutique - Assignment2: Marketing Product.

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1980s , Bell-bottoms , Denim 1661 Words | 4 Pages. not everyone may see that. The song Stand Up by Sugarland shows confidence. True beauty can also be shown through courage. Courage can be shown in many ways . and is a key trait people should try to have. Critical Essay Plan! In the movie The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants directed by Ken Kwapis, they use courage to literature review sites conquer fears. Each artistic medium shows a different way to portray true beauty that lies within it. In the homeless essay, song Stand Up by sites, Sugarland confidence shows true beauty. In the first stanza of the essay plan, song the lyrics. 2003 in film , Art , Confidence 931 Words | 3 Pages. look was desired in sites the arms and torso, and the flared line of connelly scholarship essay, bellbottoms was common.

Straight, skinny synthetic shirts or T-shirts were paired with . synthetic or denim bellbottoms and also polyester knit suits in dress-and-jacket, jacket-and-skirt or pant sets wore worn. Polyester was overwhelmingly the fabric of choice from review sites, leisure to eveningwear, but natural fibers were still used with the connelly foundation scholarship, organic flower child look. Loud and clashing colors were now in everyday fashion prints, from conservative to. 20th century , Bodice , Fashion 1226 Words | 4 Pages. back in the day” (Chonin). Literature Review! Their lyrics were not very hard to understand and of knowledge 2011, mostly elementary in nature, which speaks to teens and young adults. One of . Literature Review! their more “rebellious” songs was a song called “Anthem Part 2” off of behavior, 2001’s Take Off Your Pants and review, Jacket. The song claims that teens are “misled / young and hostile, but not stupid.” It goes on connelly scholarship essay to say that teens will “never give up, it’s no use / If [they’re] fucked up [adults] are to blame… / Kids are victims in sites this story / Drown the essay 2011, youth. Blink-182 , Box Car Racer , Enema of the State 1868 Words | 5 Pages. THE SAGGING PANTS ERA The American culture has had many different trends. Literature! Though older individuals have never quite approved . of young men and essay on migration in india, women’s dress code, it has been excepted and never severely charged.

Fashion trends have become an expression of one’s personal style among today’s youth. In some cases, it can be thought that a certain type of dress is directly connected to review sites performance, attitude, and overall behavior in school, outside activities, and intolerance boyish behavior, life in review sites general. The continued argument. Belt , Fashion , Hip hop 1243 Words | 4 Pages. fur, and of knowledge essay questions 2011, black leather jackets. Matching jeans and denim jackets began to be made in sites darker shades rather than the bleached acid wash of the essayeur automobile, 1980s. • . From 1990 onwards, many women wore tight-fitting trousers with elastic boot-straps (stirrup pants /leggings), drainpipe jeans, colored tights, bike shorts, and tartan skirts. Popular accessories included court shoes, cowboy boots, headscarves, leggings, and penny loafers (associated with the sites, preppy look). [edit] Leggings and of knowledge 2011, Exercise-wear . 1990s fashion , 2000s fashion , Boot 9050 Words | 27 Pages.

Clothes in India..History and Style. make a sort of pants . Women who were fighting with the army tucked in the top part of the sari in the back, to free up their arms for sites fighting. Connelly! . Most saris were five or six yards long, although some saris were nine yards. Literature Review Sites! Younger women generally wore brightly colored saris, but widows and other women in anna homeless essay mourning wore only white onesMen also wore one long piece of cloth called the review sites, dhoti, which was generally white. Intolerance Boyish Thesis! They wrapped the dhoti (DOE-tee) around their legs to make sort of pants like the working. Clothing , Jean skirt , Kilt 684 Words | 2 Pages. slacks (tight for women) and dark glasses. Women wore float shoes while men wore sandals.

Women wore dark eye makeup. 1963 - Cardin designed the Beatles . suits which became popular for men. Literature Sites! The suit had a single breasted collarless jacket and slim pants . Mary Quant started her own label, and theory of knowledge essay questions 2011, is responsible for designing mini skirts, colored tights, and wet look vinyl fashions. Review Sites! 1964 - Space age clothing starts to become popular. Different materials were used such as discs of metal or plastic linked. Clothing , Dress , Hippie 403 Words | 2 Pages. people who tend to dance a great deal or otherwise wish to of knowledge questions call attention to their legs and footwork, this seems like a very logical fashion choice; it will . soon be picked up by many wishing to keep their legs warm while looking for an alternative to literature sites pants , which usually don't have bouncing fur on them. Romeo Critical Essay! Naturally, at most electronic dance shows there always seems to be a great congregation of potentially fashionable people who consider both function and review, showiness; most usually try to wear at least. Case study , Dance , Dance music 827 Words | 2 Pages.

inches off the ground and there were an equal number of full ones and pilote essayeur automobile, straight ones. Sites! Dresses may have hung at mid-calf, but shorts got shorter-with rolled up . Quindlen Homeless Essay! cuffs. (Donovan 74) For the active woman on literature review sites the go there were short pants . Capri’s and pedal pushers, narrow long pants with a side zipper, a popular look, with narrowed legs. Romeo Critical Essay Plan! They came in a variety of colors and literature review sites, fabric’s. Formal gowns and cocktail dresses were dramatic. The evening scene was one of great formality that had not existed since the. 1950s , Bodice , Dress 742 Words | 2 Pages. were kept simple, and were more neutral, dark tones also. Squared shoulders and theory of knowledge, narrow hips were both popular looks in the 40’s. The typical outfit would be . sporty-baggy sweaters, knee-length skirts, and bobby socks (high raised socks.) Women wearing pants (or slacks) also started to literature become more common as well. Showing skin wasn’t accepted as it is in todays society. Clothing- Some designs worm by both men and pilote essayeur automobile, women would still be modern even in today’s standards.

Suits, ties, and a ton of military. Clothing , Dress , Footwear 618 Words | 2 Pages. Why Do People Sag Their Pants ? My question has been the same for many ages. I don't like the fact that so many people sag their . pants . To me it looks nasty and showing off your underwear is not cool and I don't know why people think it would be. I have done this research on more than one occasion and not for sites a class assignment, but because I wanted to try and intolerance boyish behavior thesis, understand what they could possibly get out of such unruly attire. There have been quite a few stories going around about the exact beginnings. Glee , Pilot , Quinn Fabray 2024 Words | 5 Pages. Sagging: Trousers and review sites, Hip Hop Artists. is the occurrence of sagging pants among boys.

For the benefit of the less enlightened, sagging is romeo critical essay plan, a manner of . wearing trousers (slacks, shorts, pants or jeans) below the waist, revealing much of review, one’s underwear and sometimes one’s tooshie. And it’s primarily a male trend. Why do boys like to sag their pants ? Are their boxer shorts too good to be kept for themselves that they have to be exposed for the whole world to see or are their belts just too large to romeo critical essay hoist their pants high? Some guys respond. American Idol , Belt , Clothing 620 Words | 2 Pages. ?Chapter 2 Quiz 1. A theory is defined as a: A) systematic way of organizing and explaining observations B) hypothetical way of organizing and . Literature Review Sites! explaining characteristics of people C) systematic framework for creating a hypothesis based on data and experimentation D) framework based on of knowledge one's psychological perspective 2. A hypothesis is best characterized as: A) a procedure that precedes a theoretical framework B) any phenomenon that can change from literature sites, one situation to another C) a systematic. Reliability , Sample , Sample size 833 Words | 3 Pages. 10/08/2010 Instructor: Turner Course: 02197READ211 Summary of Sagging Jeans The passage Are Your . Intolerance Boyish! Jeans Sagging ? Go Directly to Jail is review, about a controversy over wearing sagging jeans among the society.

It shows the positive and negative responses to sagging jeans from different places in the society. There’s a group of people support crafting a law to foundation scholarship essay ban the sagging jeans whereas opponents oppose the legislation for several reasons. Professor of sociology. Ban , Human rights , Law 442 Words | 2 Pages. my audience that banning sagging pants in Atlanta will help reduce indecent public display and the stereotype it gives men. . Central Idea: Banning sagging pants in Atlanta will help reduce indecent public display, and it will reduce any stereotype it gives men Introduction I. Many are aware of the vast increase of the sites, ever so disgusting fashion trend. Theory Of Knowledge Essay! This trend has corrupted the literature, minds of today’s youths and has led them to believe that the questions 2011, sagging of literature review, one’s pants is a wonderful trend to. 712 Words | 3 Pages. ?Oanh Van WFE 101 Professor David Moore November 3rd, 2014 Sauna Pants is a fitness equipment that provides the benefits of a heating sauna. . It makes you sweat quickly within minutes in the stomach, waist, butt and hips, consequently helps shedding extra water in just 50 minutes a day and possibly losing weight . Connelly Essay! Furthermore, the literature review, soothing heat attribute is also claimed to ease tight muscles and sore joint. The pants are simple to wear with adjust-ability in quindlen anna waists and thighs but still, since it.

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I never noticed how . something as small as wearing the pants a certain way can have so much history along with it. When I seen the fashion of saggin' pants come into style I wasn't sure if should follow along with it because I wasnt sure where the style itself has come from essay questions 2011, along with others. Review! Judge Mathis is right when he states his claim that todays socitey has no idea as to. Errol Flynns , Greg Mathis , Judge Mathis 535 Words | 2 Pages. Death Came to See Me in Hot Pink Pants. Last night, I dreamt that Death came to see me in hot-pink pants and matching waistcoat too.

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family members to make time for family bonding. The Whole Family 3rd day Start having the most awaited bonding and make things better and clearer by makig . each other feel loved and cared for. The Whole Family 4th day Buying Ponching a new pair of pants and making sure it fits him well. The Whole Family . American films , Finance , Management 651 Words | 3 Pages. can interfere with how you are dressed. But, I can’t accept such an boyish opinion. I believe we should crack down on saggy pants in public for the . following two reasons: They not only review sites, make others disgusted but corrupt public morals. Besides, they are likely to embarrass others. First and theory essay questions 2011, foremost, indeed, you have a right to wear any clothing you like unless it offends others. Saggy pants are, however, offensive especially when worn to show your underwear. Literature Review! If such a sloppy fashion went unchecked, it would.

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If the truth comes to light, the person. 2000s music groups , 2006 albums , 2006 singles 416 Words | 2 Pages. The story Golden Pants by roger Lemelin is about a young boy from pilote automobile, a family that wasn't far from poverty. Literature Review Sites! His mom of course, who wasn't so good . On Migration In India! a sewing made all his clothes. So maybe his fashion wasn't that great until the day she made him golden pants . The golden pants turned out to review be the solution to all his problems. I liked this story because it reminds me of kids I knew back in essay the day. Style wasn't so important when I was younger but one thing I remember was if you showed up in school with. 626 Words | 2 Pages.

look of our staff is important. Literature Review Sites! We will provide one scrub uniform per employee. The doctor’s will wear blue scrubs with their white lab coats. The RN’s . and LPN’s will wear white scrub pants with a scrub top of their choice. Our dietary staff, housekeeping staff and maintenance staff will all wear black scrub pants with a top of their choice.

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Swag is essay on migration in india, a new slang for the appearance of their apparel. I also observed some student using language that is used by individuals with . limited vocabulary. Literature Review! I didn’t observe a lot of respect for theory of knowledge essay questions authority. There were lots of sagging pants , big t-shirts and bandanas hanging out of review sites, their back pockets. Inside the mall there were lots of tattoos and piercings on students.

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Gates dropped out of college at behavior the age of 20, two years after enrolling in literature review it. The image that is painted in a person’s mind when he hears about college . dropouts is influenced by anna homeless essay, a stereotype. Review! The person then perceives college dropouts as tattooed, pant - sagging , chain-smoking, moronic students who are careless about their education, making a big mistake in their lives by choosing to drop out of college. This stereotype led to quindlen essay Gates being viewed as a failure by his society. Computer programming companies. Dropout , Ethnic stereotype , Race 832 Words | 3 Pages. pocket if it is Sunday. -In Quitman it's illegal for chickens to cross the road.

Hawaii -Coins are not allowed to be placed in one’s ears. Idaho -Riding . a merry-go-round on Sundays is considered a crime. Illinois -It is literature review, illegal to wear sagging pants in Collinsville, IL. -Humming on essayeur automobile public streets is prohibited on Sundays. Indiana -The value of Pi is 3. -Baths may not be taken between the review sites, months of connelly essay, October and March. Iowa -Kisses may last for no more than five minutes. -A man with a. Fine , Fine of lands , Pizza delivery 800 Words | 4 Pages. about dressed a certain way, or had the same color skin.

Stereotype and cliche serve a purpose as a form of shorthand. (125). Review! We don't have to come up . with a solution to boyish behavior thesis a problem if the problem is students wearing gang colors to school, or sagging their pants to low. Americans like to think that they are different then the people they see on TV being killed by car bombs, or killed by tribal wars in sites Africa, because it makes it easier to let it keep happening. Ericsson said, Fat people, ugly people. By the Way , Essay , Lie 964 Words | 3 Pages. type writers. Technology will keep on improveing with the years to come. Fashion today seems to be the total opposite of the theory essay 2011, 70’s. The young men of my . generation wear really lose fitted clothing and are really into the “ sagging ” trend. Sagging is when the males wear their pants really low and often times expose their underwear.

Girls from both generations wear fitted clothes, but the colors and patterns are not as eye catching. The girls from the 70’s were really into wearing their shorts and or. 1970s , Electronic band structure , Electronic engineering 441 Words | 2 Pages. on display. You can see the literature review, look of aggravation on the faces of the parents. The look says it all. I knew I shouldn't have brought the kids into this . store. There is romeo essay plan, one woman there trying to read the back of a box while her son is pulling on her pant leg.

His insistence for attention becomes more and literature, more adamant. He is obviously trying to quindlen anna convince her to review sites buy him a new toy. I could never really understand why people take kids into boyish thesis, the toy stores if they don't intend to buy anything. It seems like. Shopping mall 1117 Words | 3 Pages.

The Enforcement of School Uniforms. lower classes dividing the students. Literature Review! Schools the require uniforms look more formal and well put together. Schools that don’t require uniforms have those . few kids who don’t care how they dress, or dress sloppy. Essay On Migration In India! There are kids walking around with pants sagging to review the ground and underwear showing.

Some kids will even be wearing inappropriate logos on theory questions 2011 shirts or jackets. Review Sites! That gives the school a bad look and critical essay plan, reputation. Sites! Schools with uniforms have all the students dressed nicely in the assigned uniforms. Dress code , Education , High school 726 Words | 2 Pages. Everybody lies about something in essayeur automobile their lives and it’s a dangerous thing to do, unfortunately it is the easiest way to get out of trouble and put the blame . on someone else. The effects of lying are shown in the American classic The Crucible by playwright Arthur Miller. The Crucible is a play about the witch trials in Salem, which led to the death of many innocent people in Salem who were accused of being witches. Throughout The Crucible significant lies were told by literature review sites, Abigail Williams, John Proctor. Elizabeth Proctor , John Proctor , Mary Warren 871 Words | 2 Pages.

Factors Affecting Academic Performance of Criminology Students. | |1. The Perfect Breast Shape: The Nipple is pointed outwards and intolerance thesis, is . parallel to the ground. The breast should be well toned and | |supple with no evidence of sagging . Literature Sites! | |[pic] | | . Areola , Breast , Marfan syndrome 767 Words | 4 Pages.

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Pension system in the Netherlands. The Netherlands has a pension system that can be considered unique around the review world. The Dutch pension system consists of three so called pillars. The first pillar includes the state pension (Algemene Ouderdoms Wet, AOW), which consists of quindlen anna homeless, a flat benefit and literature review, is granted to every Dutch citizen aged 65 years or older. The second pillar consists of mandatory collective pension schemes which are arranged within pension funds or insurance companies. A certain occupation, industry or company is essay often linked to a particular pension fund, meaning that with practicing a certain occupation, your pension fund is already predetermined. The last and third pillar consists of voluntary private pension savings (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). Although the pillar structure of Dutch pension system itself does not differ much from the pillar structure of other western countries, the size and relative importance of review sites, each of the quindlen anna essay pillars is rather different.

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2nd pillar 40 5 6 1 4 32 25 13. 3rd pillar 10 10 15 25 4 26 10 42. This unique position of essay on migration in india, second pillar pensions in the Netherlands demands realignment of the financing structure of the first and second pillar through the franchise. The AOW in the first pillar is financed by social premiums every employed Dutch citizen pays to the government. The pension benefits received from the pension funds in the second pillar are financed by paying pension premiums into the pension fund. Review Sites. Originally, the franchise is romeo and juliet critical essay plan meant as an instrument to achieve the integration between both pillars. Literature Review Sites. In order to establish this integration, part of the labor income is exempted from paying pension premiums over into critical a pension fund; the franchise (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009).

Since the relative importance of the literature review second pillar is unique for behavior thesis, the Netherlands, the franchise is a typically Dutch phenomenon. Theoretically the franchise equals the part of the labor income over which AOW benefits are granted (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). Sites. To this respect, no Dutch citizen should pay ‘double’ for their pension income. Strictly speaking, the one to one relationship between the franchise and the AOW should result in a franchise that is uniform across pension funds. In practice the level of the franchise differs between pension funds (Eberhardt et.al., 2014), although it has a uniform character within the funds itself (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). Before 2006, the Dutch pension system was characterized by a final salary system. On Migration In India. In this system the relationship between the franchise and the AOW was maintained.

However, with the transition to the average salary system in literature review sites, 2006, the relationship between the franchise and the AOW diluted . The uniform franchise used by the large Dutch industrywide pension funds is an element of a uniform accrual system further consisting of a uniform pension premium and a uniform accrual rate. These aspects of the financing structure within a pension fund are uniform in the sense that their level is the same for every participant of the fund regardless of his or her individual characteristics (CPB, 2013). This implies that every participant of essay questions 2011, a pension fund pays the same pension premium in literature review, terms of and juliet essay, percentage for which the same amount of labor income is literature review sites exempted by the franchise, to accrue the same accrual rate per year. Especially the franchise and on migration in india, accrual rate are highly interdependent. To this respect they are inseparable: a higher accrual rate implies a higher franchise and sites, vice versa (A. Homeless Essay. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). An aspect of the uniformity characterizing Dutch pension funds which has given rise to a great deal of debate is the fact that participants in pension funds are often not uniform at all. The uniform accrual system finds its origins in the notion of solidarity between the different participants of a pension fund.

Furthermore solidarity enables the sharing of literature, risks such as longevity risk and capital market risk. However when a pension fund has participants that differ widely in certain characteristics such as life expectancy, career path taken, or career length, the uniform accrual system causes structural redistribution between them (CPB, 2013). A system is then said to be actuarially unfair. A measure of this redistribution is the net gain. The net gain shows the boyish ratio of the sites discounted sum of pension benefits during retirement over pilote essayeur automobile, the discounted sum of paid premiums over the working life (CPB, 2013).

In an actuarially fair situation the net gain should always equal one for every individual at every point in time, regardless of their characteristics. However, generally speaking the uniform accrual system is literature sites not actuarially fair, meaning that certain participants either overpaid or underpaid for their pension rights (CPB, 2013). Apart from the automobile redistribution between participants of literature, a fund, the pension outcome differs considerably between participants of boyish behavior thesis, a fund too. The pension outcome can be thought of as the replacement rate. The replacement rate shows the ratio of the pension benefit of a certain individual over the main source of their income during working life at a certain moment in review, time. Thereby the replacement rate is a measure of the effectiveness of consumption smoothing (Barr and Diamond, 2008). The pension benefit includes pension income from both the first and the second pillar. Foundation. Just as the net gain, the replacement rate is influenced by the uniformness of the system and individual characteristics of the participant too. Although the uniform pension premium and uniform accrual rate have received much attention in the literature, the uniform franchise remains relatively underexposed. To my knowledge, up until this date no quantitative literature exists on the sole topic of the franchise.

The reason for this may lie in review sites, the fact that the maximum levels of the franchise are largely determined by law (Kakes and Broeders, 2006). Essay. Another explanation might be that the franchise is less important in other countries due to the relatively smaller size of the second pillar. This in contrast to pension premium, which influences the literature review sites affordability of theory of knowledge questions 2011, labor and thereby influences the labor market. Next to that the literature review pension premium is something that is relatively seizable and concrete for the average citizen. Pilote Essayeur. The uniform accrual rate on its turn receives much attention in the light of the review redistribution discussion. Next to automobile that the accrual rate has a certain fiscal angle since it reflects the amount of pension rights to be accrued in review, a fiscal beneficial way. It is however unjust that the franchise receives little attention. Since, as being part of the uniform accrual system, it certainly might affect both the pilote essayeur redistribution between participants within a pension fund, as the pension outcome for these participants.

Therefore the research question of this thesis is the following: ‘How are the redistribution between – and pension outcome of individual participants of a pension fund influenced by their individual characteristics in terms of starting salary, career path and length of career, and to what extend does the level of the uniform franchise and accrual rate change the redistribution and pension outcome?’ The research question has been formulated such that it addresses both the role of the franchise and accrual rate in the often discussed redistribution between participants of a pension fund, as well as their eventual pension outcome. Since longevity risk is not one of the characteristics taken into account, only review sites redistribution within the accrual phase is considered . As already stated before, the theory essay questions franchise and literature review sites, the accrual rate are inseparable. Therefore it is not possible to pilote examine the influence the franchise has as a sole concept in an adequate way. The net gain is used as the outcome variable for the redistribution, while the replacement rate will be used as the outcome variable for literature, the pension outcome. Foundation Scholarship. The replacement rate and net gain are not necessarily linked.

For example, the net gain can have the same value for literature, every participant in a fund, while the replacement rates for these participants can differ widely. To this respect the net gain is intolerance behavior a flow variable, while the literature replacement is a stock variable. Both the net gain and the replacement rate are simulated by typical agent models which have been written for the purpose of this thesis. Another unique aspect of this thesis is that it makes use of homeless essay, data instead of presumed values in literature sites, the simulations. More specifically, data on theory of knowledge questions, the five largest pension funds in the Netherlands, in terms of assets under management (van der Westen, 2014) are used.

This thesis first examines the net gains and replacement rates of individuals for their individual characteristics separately (cetirus paribus). Afterwards the different levels of the characteristics are combined into scenarios. Hereby all possible combinations of the individual characteristics are captured. The scenarios are determined in the following manner: # scenarios = # starting salaries*# career paths*# lengths of career. For reasons of literature review sites, variation in outcomes and keeping in anna, mind the scope of this thesis, these scenarios are simulated for the replacement rates. This procedure is literature sites repeated three times for automobile, three different combinations of accrual rates and franchises. Pension funds can choose the level of the franchise, and literature, consequently the level of the accrual rate themselves. However, not all combinations are allowed. The law prescribes three fixed combinations which are legally binding and are shown in table 2 for essay, the year 2015 (Sprenkels Verschuren, 2014).

Table 2 Lawful Combinations of Franchise and Accrual rate, 2015. Combination Accrual Rate Maximum Franchise Level. Combination 1 Maximum of 1,875% ‘ 12.642,- Combination 2 Maximum of 1,788% (but not lower than 1,701%) ‘ 11.395,- Combination 3 Maximum of1,701% ‘ 10.095,- These fixed combinations represent maximum levels of the franchise and accrual rate combination.

Pension funds can choose to have a lower accrual rate or franchise than these fixed combinations, but cannot choose a higher level (Sprenkels Verschuren, 2014). Therefore these three combinations are used in sites, this research. The series of simulations for the three different combinations, result in a spread of net gains (for the three different characteristics separately only) and essayeur, replacement rates (for the literature three different characteristics and all of them combined in the scenarios). Next, the magnitude of above described effects the individual characteristics and the combination of the franchise and theory of knowledge essay questions 2011, accrual rate have on sites, the replacement rates is estimated using a log linear model. Of Knowledge 2011. In this way the marginal effects can be quantified. Review. The magnitude is only examined for the replacement rate as an connelly essay, outcome variable since the scenarios are not simulated for literature, the net gain. The remainder of this paper is connelly essay organized as follows.

Section 2 describes the literature structure of the Dutch pension system, the franchise and the uniform accrual system in detail. Furthermore, previous literature on on migration, relevant topics is discussed. Section 3 discusses the methodology, including the typical agent simulation models and sites, the data that are used. The results and implications are discussed in section 4. Subsequently, section 5 examines possible policy implication. Section 6 describes and discusses the general conclusions. Finally, section 7 discusses and gives recommendations for further research. Structure of the Dutch Pension System. The Dutch three pillar pension system is a system that is rather complex to understand. Especially considering the relative importance of the quindlen anna essay second pillar pension schemes and thus the pension funds. Pension schemes can be financed in roughly two ways; on a pay as you go (PAYG) basis, or via funding.

The AOW public pension has a pay as you go (PAYG) character which implies that the AOW is paid entirely out of current revenue sources. The AOW thereby has a contractarian nature, meaning that no savings have to be accumulated in anticipation of future pension claims but instead the government can tax the working population to pay for the pension benefits of the retirees. Consequently, a PAYG system relaxes the constraint that the sites benefits received by any generation must be matched by its own contributions (Barr and Diamond, 2008). A PAYG financed pension scheme usually has two main objectives. First it redistributes income from the younger generations towards the older generations which are retired. Second it redistributes and shares risks across generations (Barr and Diamond, 2008).

The level of the AOW benefit depends on the household’s composition. And the number of years which an individual has been insured. Every individual that lives or works in the Netherlands is on migration in india automatically insured and thereby accrues two percent AOW benefit per year. After fifty years of either living or working in the Netherlands, a person is fully insured and is thereby granted the full amount of AOW which he or she is sites eligible for. This amount depends on the household composition. On Migration. A person that cohabits with another individual receives a flat benefit of literature, fifty percent of the net minimum wage. A person that lives alone receives seventy percent of the net minimum wage (Sociale Verzekeringsbank, n.d.).

Furthermore the age at which citizens become eligible for the AOW benefit will be increased gradually to age 67. When this age is reached, the retirement age may further increase if life expectancy increases (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). To the contrary, the occupational pension schemes in the second pillar are funded. This means that contributions are invested in financial (or physical) assets of which the return is essayeur automobile credited to the plan’s participants. Funded schemes can be either individual or collective. When a person retires he or she receives either an annuity or draws down the accumulation in review sites, some other way, for example via a lump sum. The annuity or lump sum is based on either the individual contributions to the fund, or the romeo critical essay accrued pension rights depending on whether the fund has individual accounts or a collective nature (Barr and Diamond, 2008). Review Sites. In the Netherlands the connelly scholarship essay vast majority of the pension funds have basic pension schemes which are collective and pension benefits can only be received in the form of an annuity. Funded schemes on its turn, can be classified into two main categories; defined benefit (DB) and defined contribution (DC) schemes. In DB schemes pension benefits are based, among other things, on the worker’s wage, length of literature review sites, employment history and the so called accrual rate.

The accrual rate determines how much pension rights a person accumulates per year over his or her labor income minus the franchise. The accrual rate can either be a percentage of questions, a person’s start- average- or final salary (Barr and Diamond, 2008). The replacement rate constitutes the number of years in which a person accrued pension rights times the sites accrual rate. Moreover, the replacement rate expresses pension benefit as a fraction of one of these three salary levels. Essay On Migration. In 2006, a transition took place from the final salary scheme to the average salary scheme in the Netherlands. Sites. Therefore the average salary scheme is the most common. In 2008, 87 percent of the theory of knowledge essay active members of pension funds had an average salary scheme (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). As of the first of literature sites, January 2015, the fiscal regulation surrounding the accrual of pension rights has been adjusted with the adaptation of the ‘Witteveenkader’. The maximum boundary which guarantees fiscal beneficial pension saving is set at anna, a labor income of 100.000 euros. This means that above this boundary individuals have to arrange the accrual of literature sites, pension savings themselves. This accrual will be out of net income, instead of gross income which is the case below the boundary.

Another measure which has been taken is the decrease of the fiscal maximum of the accrual rate. This maximum is lowered from 2,15% for average salary schemes in 2014, to 1,875% for pilote, average salary schemes in 2015 (Staatsblad van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, 2014). In defined contribution schemes the pension benefit depends on review sites, the contributions paid into theory essay the fund. In DC schemes the pension benefit is not pre-determined but the pension premium is, for literature sites, a certain period of time as opposed to DB schemes where the pension benefit is mostly pre-determined. Defined contribution schemes can be either individual (IDC) or collective (CDC). In CDC schemes participants accrue pension rights based on the average salary system against a pre-determined pension premium (Mercer, 2015). The eventual pension benefit is not predetermined since it depends on the factual funding ratio of the theory pension fund at the time of literature sites, retirement (Chen et.al., 2014). In IDC schemes every pension fund participant saves for its own pension benefit.

The eventual pension benefit is the sum of the paid pension premiums and the realized return on them (Chen et.al., 2014). In IDC schemes, risks cannot be shared between participants as opposed to CDC schemes. In CDC schemes risks can be shared between participants in an intra- as well as intergenerational manner. Intragenerational since pension benefits are paid out in the form of an annuity which enables the sharing of, for example, longevity risk (Barr and Diamond, 2008) and intergenerational since shocks in the funding ratio can be spread out over a number of years and thereby shared between various generations (Chen et.al., 2014). IDC schemes are not very common in the Netherlands (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). Most pension funds that do have a DC scheme implement a CDC scheme. Romeo Plan. Recently, DC schemes start to gain in popularity in the Netherlands and are more often used in the discussion surrounding the future of the Dutch pension system (van Dorssen and review sites, Nauta, 2014). This is mainly the case since DB schemes more or less guarantee a certain pension benefit irrespective of the financial market return (Der Wal, 2014), while DC schemes do not provide such certainty.

This implies that contributing participants in automobile, a pension fund with a DB scheme bear the risks surrounding the pension benefits of the pension fund retirees, while those risks are shared between contributing participants and sites, pension fund retirees in DC schemes. The franchise exempts a certain amount of the labor income of pension fund participants over which pension premium needs to be paid. The franchise relates to the accrual rate. Consequently, the combination of the franchise and the accrual rate a pension fund uses determines their pension premium. Romeo And Juliet Critical Essay. Therefore the review sites franchise, accrual rate and pension premium find themselves in a triangular relationship. The franchise and accrual rate combination a pension fund chooses is bound by legal requirements . Behavior Thesis. Reasons for literature, this may lie in the fact that by legally binding the intolerance boyish behavior thesis choice of the combination, the premium stays within a certain bound and cannot take an outrageous level. Besides, by legally binding the choice of the combination the risk for pension fund participants is limited. For example a low franchise in combination with a high accrual rate would result in either a relatively high premium, or a pension fund taking more risk in their investment strategy in order to be able to sites finance the accrued pension rights. Therefore such a combination is essayeur automobile not allowed.

The accrual rate determines the literature sites final replacement rate a pension fund participant reaches. The objective of a pension fund with regard to the envisioned replacement rate is a matter of pension fund policy. Consequently, pension funds have different pension schemes which result in different time paths in which the replacement rate can be reached. Intolerance Boyish Behavior. A shorter time span in which the replacement can be reached consequently corresponds to a higher accrual rate and higher franchise. The replacement rate is literature sites applicable to both pension income coming from the first ‘ and the second pillar which, theoretically, should result in a uniform franchise of 10/7th times the AOW benefit (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). Historically speaking the anna homeless franchise is meant as an instrument to integrate the first and the second pillar of the Dutch pension system. With the introduction of literature review, average salary schemes this relation got diluted, resulting in franchises which are lower than this theoretical level. Some pension funds even wield a franchise of exactly ‘0 (Eberhardt et.al., 2014). Essay. As of 2015 the relationship diluted even further, since the levels of the franchise which are connected to the fiscally allowed maximum accrual rates are lower than they would be if they were at a level of 10/7th times the literature AOW. Therefore even the law does not take notice of this presumed relationship anymore. Foundation Scholarship. The fact that the relationship between the franchise and the AOW got diluted, indicates the sites possibility that the franchise is used for other purposes by pension funds.

Nowadays, one of this main purposes is to keep the connelly foundation essay pension scheme affordable for sites, the pension fund (A. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). The level of the essay franchise is usually adapted to literature review the characteristics of the participants of connelly essay, a pension fund. A pension fund with participants which have a relatively low labor income benefit from a relatively lower franchise in combination with a lower accrual rate. For this income group the disadvantage of a lower accrual rate is outweighed by the lower level of the franchise. At higher franchise levels they run the risk of earning a labor income that is lower than the franchise and thereby not accruing pension rights. To the contrary, pension funds with participants earning relatively higher labor incomes, benefit from choosing a relatively higher franchise level in combination with a higher accrual rate. For these income groups the franchise constitutes a relatively low share of their labor income. Literature Review. Consequently the disadvantage of a higher franchise level is outweighed by the higher accrual rate.

The franchise is essay questions 2011 uniform in the sense that it is applicable to all participants in a certain pension fund. It is this uniform character that may affect the replacement rate objective the pension fund has set in literature, an adverse way. Theory Essay Questions 2011. This is the case for two reasons. Literature Sites. First, participants of pension funds are not uniform in homeless essay, terms of their labor income. Usually pension funds have participants who fall both in the higher and lower income categories. Pension funds therefore choose a franchise and accrual rate combination which is beneficial for the average participant, so ass to minimize welfare losses in terms of the replacement rate for their participants. However, zero welfare loss is not possible since above policy always results in losses for participants who are not average. The most optimal solution would be to completely differentiate the level of the franchise and accrual rate per pension fund participant, so as to achieve tailor-made solutions. Literature. This would result in zero welfare loss since every participant is subject to a franchise and accrual rate combination adapted to his or her characteristics.

This is however impossible since the franchise should have a uniform level within the pension fund. Therefore the essay 2011 franchise and accrual rate combination pension funds choose is always a suboptimal one. Second, the AOW benefit that is used in calculating the franchise can differ from the review sites AOW benefit that people actually receive. Most pension funds calculate a franchise on homeless, the basis of a AOW benefit which is 70 percent of the net minimum wage; the AOW benefit for singles (A. Literature Review. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). However, married or cohabiting couples receive an quindlen anna essay, AOW benefit of 50 percent of the net minimum wage each, resulting in a combined AOW benefit of 100% of the net minimum wage (Frericks et.al., 2006). Moreover, employees who deviate from the ‘average’ participant in review, others ways than their labor income or level of the AOW benefit, can experience problems in reaching the desired replacement rate. Essay. This could concern, for example, employees who have disrupted careers due to unemployment since participants usually do not accrue pension rights while being unemployed . Considering all this, it can be stated that the franchise could have implications for the final outcome of the review sites pension plan; the pension income in terms of the replacement rate and the redistribution in terms of the net gain (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). The Uniform Accrual System. Besides the franchise being at a uniform level, the homeless accrual rate and the pension premium are uniform too.

The uniform accrual system causes certain losses and redistribution. First, part of the pension rights in pension funds is review sites financed on a PAYG basis as younger workers subsidize the older ones (Bovenberg et.al., 2014). The return on a PAYG scheme consists of connelly essay, population growth combined with real wage growth, while the return on a funded scheme consists of the capital market return. Therefore the cost effective contribution into a uniform accrual system is higher due to the lower return on the PAYG component of the system (CPB, 2013). Next to that the system is often viewed as unfair since it causes redistribution between different cohorts in the population. First, time inconsistency causes the uniform accrued pension rights to be worth less to the younger cohorts than to people approaching the retirement age since the investment horizon of sites, young people is theory of knowledge 2011 longer.

Second, structural differences in life expectancy are not taken into account which is beneficial for cohorts with a longer life expectancy as opposed to cohorts with a lower life expectancy (Lever et.al., 2014). Moreover, the modern labor market imposes problems on the uniform accrual system due to literature review sites issues such as shorter life cycles of businesses and sectors, increased labor mobility and essayeur automobile, changing employment relationships (SER, 2015). Sites. This more flexible character of the labor market causes people to deviate from the average career path most pension funds envision in determining the level of the accrual rate, franchise and pension premium. Questions. These issues result in literature, the accrual rate and pension premium to be actuarially unfair at every moment in essay on migration in india, time. There is just one moment in time in literature, which both of them are fair; when they exactly equal the value of the accrued pension rights. Only when a person stays within the behavior thesis same pension fund during his or her entire career , the eventual outcome will be actuarially fair for this particular person. However in current dynamic labor markets this is far from usual anymore. Figure 1 describes the uniform accrual system and its redistribution (CPB, 2013). The difference between the red and literature, the blue line reflects the PAYG component loss. The difference between the purple and the blue line reflects the loss due to on migration in india time inconsistency. Finally, the difference between the purple and review, the green line reflects the loss due to differences in theory of knowledge questions 2011, life expectancy.

Figure 1 Decomposition of the Redistribution. In light of above described losses and redistributions, the Dutch parliament recently decided that the uniform accrual system will be abolished in phases. Literature Review Sites. This process will be concluded in 2020 (Rijksoverheid, 2015). The accrual system that will replace the uniform accrual system is designed at the very moment. Of Knowledge Questions 2011. Several proposals for this redesign have been made already.

Bonenkamp, Cox and Lever (2014) in a Netspar Design Paper proposed to maintain the literature review sites uniform pension premium in combination with degressive accrual of pension rights. In this way the pension premiums paid by younger cohorts result in on migration, more pension rights which makes the system actuarially fair at every moment in time. Another proposal is to maintain the uniform accrual of pension rights, while making the pension premium progressive. Literature. However this proposal could cause wage profiles to become even steeper since part of essay, this increase in the pension premium will be paid by the employer resulting in relatively higher wages for older employees. This could cause harm for the older cohorts of the working population. Especially considering the current situation of the Dutch labor market in which wages for older employees are already relatively high (CPB, 2014).

Every pension scheme and every transition from one pension scheme to another, is in principal a ‘zero sum game’ in terms of market value. An improvement for a certain generation or cohort will hurt another generation or cohort. Moving from a uniform accrual system to an actuarial fair system results in a higher return on pension savings for all current and future generations (CPB, 2013). However, both proposals go alongside with a substantial transition burden of literature review sites, approximately a hundred billion euros. Romeo Critical Plan. These hundred billion euros are the result of the generations who already paid a certain tax into the system by review, paying a too high premium for the pension rights which they accrued, but will not receive the in india subsidy which the system provides at a later age.

This burden is also referred to as implicit debt. Literature Sites. The burden will be the highest for the participants who are exactly at the cutting point as presented in figure 1. This results in a politically sensitive discussion as to which generation should bear the boyish thesis burden of this transition. Without compensation for the generations that will be hurt by this transition, the whole burden will be placed upon review, them. However, the burden can be spread over multiple generations by an increase in boyish behavior thesis, the pension premium. This will hurt younger cohorts. Another solution would be to literature review finance the transition burden via the pension fund capital by shortening indexation (CPB, 2013). This thesis can be considered a first attempt to fill the gap in the quantitative literature concerning the franchise, by examining the influence the combination of the franchise and intolerance boyish, the accrual rate has on literature review, both the net gain and the replacement rate. In this way, both redistribution and pension outcome are taken into account. Furthermore the effect of individual characteristics like occupation, career path and career length on both the net gain and the replacement are examined, as a complement to below described literature. After an intensive inquiry, to my knowledge no quantitative literature exists on the topic of the influence of the of knowledge questions 2011 franchise on the eventual pension outcome and redistribution within a pension fund. Concerning the uniform accrual system as a whole and the redistribution it causes, the situation is different.

Most of the research surrounding this topic focusses on the inter- and intragenerational transfers. In a CPB discussion paper Bonenkamp (2009) quantifies lifetime redistribution in Dutch occupational pension schemes associated with uniform pricing. The uniform contribution to the pension fund is split up in a saving part and review sites, a transfer share representing the redistribution. The transfer share is split up in an inter- and intragenerational part. Intergenerational transfers occur because of a gain for the elderly working generations at the time the second pillar pension schemes were introduced.

These generations benefit from the essay premium which is lower than their actuarially fair value of the uniform accrued pension rights. However, these generations never had to pay a premium that was higher than the actuarially fair value of these pension rights when being young. Literature Review. This introductory gain cannot be passed on to all generations without any costs. This results in an intergenerational transfer. Intragenerational transfers occur because of redistribution between different cohorts within the same generation, due to, among other things, differences in life expectancy and education. The results show that the saving share is higher for female than for male pension savers implying that there is an intragenerational transfer of 9 percent from connelly scholarship essay, men to women. Furthermore, the saving share is lower for lower educated people than for higher educated people, again pointing at an intragenerational transfer from the lower educated to the higher educated.

The intergenerational transfer is relatively small at a 2 percent level (Bonenkamp, 2009). In this thesis only intragenerational transfers are taken into account. With respect to literature review sites the redistribution caused by differences in career path, the CPB document ‘Voor- en nadelen van de doorsneesystematiek’ (2013) is relevant. This paper measures, among other things, the redistribution in the second pillar resulting from flat, average and steep career paths in terms of income profile. It concludes that people with a flat income profile benefit far less from the essay in india uniform accrual system than people with a steep income profile do. This effect mainly arises due to the fact that people with a flat income profile mainly accrue pension benefits at the beginning of their career when the actuarial value of the pension rights is low. In later stages of their career, when the literature review sites actuarial value of the pension rights is questions 2011 higher, they build up less pension benefits. For people with a steep income profile the opposite is true (CPB, 2013). Simulation Model Characteristics. Both the net gain and the replacement rate are modelled using a typical agent simulation model. An important difference between the two outcome variables is the fact that the net gain solely models a pension fund.

It models pension premiums paid to the pension fund and pension benefits received from the pension fund. To the contrary, the replacement rate includes both the pension benefits coming from the review sites pension fund and the AOW benefit. Since both the net gain and the replacement rate represent different concepts, they are both simulated using different models which have been written for quindlen homeless, the purpose of this thesis. However, although the model equations are different they are based on the same type of models in the taxonomy of simulation models, namely typical agent models. The taxonomy of simulation models regarding pensions is presented in table 3 (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Table 3 Taxonomy of Simulation Models for Pensions. Microsimulation Models Standard Models. 1.1 Static microsimulation models Standard cohort models. 1.2 Dynamic microsimulation models 2.2 Typical agent models. Microsimulation models are the most comprehensive type of models in terms of equations used and sectors of the economy that are taken into literature review account. Moreover, they need a large amount of data as input.

Therefore making use of a microsimulation model is out of the scope of this research and the choice is made to essay on migration use a model falling into the standard model category. Microsimulation models simulate changes in a sample of a large number (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). The sample can be either cross sectional or a panel. The simplest type of review, microsimulation models are static microsimulation models. These models compare two states of the world, for example two different institutional settings. In these type of models time is not included as a factor. To the contrary, dynamic microsimulation models do include time. Thereby these models are capable of explicitly modelling life paths of individuals.

They take into theory of knowledge questions account both behavioral responses and review sites, the policy environment (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Cohort models usually start from current cross-sectional information on certain characteristics of various social groups which are most frequently cohorts. This current set of information is then simulated into the future. In this simulation assumptions on the state of the labor market and demographics are made. The simulation path attempts to boyish behavior thesis reweigh the group averages of the review sites cohort resulting from the current information set influenced by these assumptions. The major advantage of cohort models is that aggregate conclusions can be obtained (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Typical agent models draw typical histories of fictitious individuals. These typical agents usually differ in main features and life-path characteristics such as career path taken, career length and occupation. Based on connelly scholarship, the typical histories the level of the pension benefit is simulated and expressed in a certain way, for review sites, example by using the replacement rate as an outcome variable (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Typical agent models are capable of including the country-specific institutional setting.

Moreover, the accrual of pension rights is properly tracked since the whole history of a fictitious individual is simulated. Typical agent models are well suited to asses, among other things, incentives to connelly essay work longer or to compare the generosity of the literature review pension scheme for different types of individuals. They are, however, incapable of automobile, producing aggregate outcomes (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). This makes it difficult to literature review sites draw conclusions about, for example, the average net gain or replacement rate of a pension fund, or the weighted distribution of these variables. However, this will not cause considerable problems, since the focus of this research is on outcomes on an individual level, namely on foundation essay, the level of pension fund participants.

Therefore, I have chosen to literature write two simulation models which fall into this category. First and foremost since these models are most appropriate for simulating the replacement rate which is critical plan one of the literature main variables of interest within this thesis. Romeo Critical. Moreover, the disadvantages of this model type do not form a considerable threat to the research. Furthermore, the models are deterministic and non-stochastic which means that they concentrate on outcomes which are simulated without taking notice of external shocks. Examples of literature review sites, external shocks could be decreasing interest rates or a sudden decrease in fertility. And Juliet Critical. In the review sites design of intolerance thesis, these models, external shocks would most probably influence the values of certain parameters. Literature Review. The simplification of not taking into account external shocks is justified, since the primary interest of this thesis is in expected (ex-ante) redistribution and expected (ex-ante) pension outcomes. However, this simplification also causes the model to be stylized.

In certain situations this could cause a certain outcome which would be different when the model would be stochastic. For example, it could be concluded that no redistribution between partcipants of a pension fund takes place while this would be the case if certain variables would be allowed to vary. An example of this is described in appendix (‘). The model that is used to simulate the of knowledge questions net gain took the model of review sites, Joop Hartog (2013) as a starting point. This model can be found in romeo and juliet essay, appendix II.

In this thesis the net gain is simulated using equation the following model/equations : List of variables: W = length of working life in years. P = duration of retirement period in years. i??i?? = replacement rate (length of working life times the accrual rate) r = discount rate (real rate of return on literature, standard life cycle investment scheme) y = starting salary as a fraction of the minimum wage. n = individual real growth of the wage. f = franchise as a fraction of the minimum wage. i??i?? = pension premium (as a fraction of the salary minus the connelly essay franchise) i??i?? = accrual rate. Equation (1) computes the literature review sites net gain (NG) by dividing the discounted sum of pension benefits from the pension fund over the discounted sum of paid pension premiums to the pension fund.

Both sums are discounted back to quindlen anna homeless essay period 0, which means to the period before an individual starts working. This is review sites done so as to of knowledge 2011 equal the time value of review, these sums and simulate a time-consistent net gain. The discount rate (r) takes the value of the theory essay questions real rate of return on the standard life cycle investment scheme. The nominator represents the sum of discounted pension benefits. The sum is literature sites computed by intolerance boyish behavior thesis, multiplying the literature review replacement rate (i??i??) with the average salary, since the accrual system in the Netherlands is characterized by an average salary system. The replacement rate is determined exogenously by multiplying the theory of knowledge essay questions length of the literature working life with the accrual rate.

This is the case since participants generally only accrue pension rights while being employed. Intolerance Thesis. The equation reflects a uniform accrual system since the accrual rate is constant and time-independent. The average salary, the term between brackets, is computed by dividing the sum of all salaries earned during working life, over the length of the working life. The denominator represents the sum of discounted pension premiums. The pension premium (i??i??) is multiplied with every year’s salary, which increases every year with the inflation (g) and the individual growth of the wage (n). Again, the equation reflects a uniform accrual system since the pension premium is time-independent and literature sites, constant too. Since the model is deterministic, the values of the franchise, starting salary, accrual rate and pension premium as a fraction of the minimum wage are kept constant for the whole simulation period. This is the case since all these variables are sensitive to external shocks or developments to a greater or lesser extent. Predicting these shocks and developments is hard and besides, outside the scope of this thesis. Furthermore, the boyish thesis minimum wage increases with the inflation. Since all above mentioned parameters are computed as fractions of the literature review sites minimum wage, they are automatically fully indexed with the value of the inflation.

The net gain is only computed for the pension fund. Therefore the first pillar pension benefit is not taken into account. The franchise is used in equation (1) to reflect this. In the nominator the average salary which is used in determining the pension benefit is diminished by the franchise. In the denominator the essay questions labor income is diminished with the literature review sites franchise, which results in a so called pensionable salary bron woordenboekje over which pension premium has to be paid. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Finance essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

There are UK writers just like me on connelly foundation scholarship, hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is review qualified to a high level in our area of critical, expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Finance work in your email box, in literature review, as little as 3 hours. This Finance essay was submitted to us by a student in essay questions 2011, order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Pension system in literature sites, the Netherlands . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/finance/pension-system-in-the-netherlands/ [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to connelly essay have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 12-08-17 - Investment Banking 26-05-17 - Evolution of BASEL 21-12-16 - The effect of review, exchange rate and inflation on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) - FINANCE FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS - Adoption of IFRS – literature review - Initial Public Offerings - Implementation of the IFRS in Nigeria - DETERMINANTS OF VALUE ADDED TAX REVENUE IN NIGERIA 30-11-16 - Banking capital – Islamic banking 22-11-16 - Risk and expected return.

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Free you from not daring to use components because of unable to master the key technology of components! VC++ MFC Thread Tutorial: _beginthreadex , WaitForSingleObject, pausing, resuming, and stopping threads. Frequently in the Visual C++ forum and multithreaded forum , questions are raised on how to start and essayeur automobile, stop threads and how to manipulate MFC UI elements from review within a worker thread. This article will take the reader through the steps of homeless, building a simple MFC dialog application called StartStop. The application starts, pauses, resumes, and stops a thread , simulating data retrieval. In addition, during the data retrieval simulation, a progress bar is updated. Literature! Future parts of this article will show techniques for sharing data between threads and how to protect the data via synchronization techniques. Note: This article assumes some basic familiarity with MFC , how to create projects, add resources, and so forth. If you can create an MFC dialog and add controls to the dialog, you should be good to go.

Open up Visual Studio .Net 2003 and thesis, create an MFC dialog project called StartStop. Because it's a good idea to keep the UI code separate from the threading code, you are going to put the threading code inside a ProgressMgr class, but first you are going to create the review basic UI 'shell' code that creates the basic button handlers and UI variables that allow you to connelly enable/disable the buttons, change the button text, and manipulate the progress control. You know, the UI stuff. The UI for literature review sites the application will be a simple dialog consisting of intolerance boyish thesis, three buttons and literature review sites, a progress control. To create the UI, open the essay on migration in india resource editor and literature review, click on the IDD_STARTSTOP_DIALOG. Next, delete the essay in india OK button and add two buttons with the ID of the first button ID_STARTPAUSERESUME and the second one as ID_STOP. Also, add a progress control. You should end up with something like Figure 1. The plan will be to add some button and progress control variables, button message handlers, and some user-defined messages to let the UI to know when to update the progress control and when the thread has finished. First, you'll start with the control variables and button message handlers. Next, you'll add the literature review sites control variables to allow you to enable/disable the buttons.

Although many programmers use the Win32 GetDlgItem() API to connect the controls, it's preferred to leverage MFC's DDX mechanism and let MFC handle the plumbing of the controls. Once you've tried this method, you may never go back to anna essay GetDlgItem(). Creating controls with DDX in MFC is sites, easy; you just highlight the control in quindlen essay the resource editor, right-click on the control, and choose 'Add variable. '. Here's how to do it for the Start button. Open the dialog in the resource editor. Review! Right-click on the Start button and choose 'Add variable. Intolerance Boyish! '. The 'Add Member Variable Wizard bo?=#19; StartStop' dialog will appear (see Figure 2). Under 'Variable name:', ENTER m_btnStartPauseResume.

Press Finish. Repeat for the Stop button and Progress control. Do the same for the stop button and progress control, entering m_btnStop and m_ctrlProgress for the variable names. Add the Start and Stop button message handlers. After creating the control variables, in the dialog editor just double-click on the Start , Stop , and Cancel buttons to create the review sites message handlers. You should end up with empty handlers as follows: Toggling the Start / Pause button state.

You want the start button to also function as a pause and resume button. To do this, you need to keep track of what 'mode' the button is in. To do this, declare an enumeration type and an INT member variable the StartStopDlg.h file. Essay On Migration! Don't forget to initialize this variable in the constructor to FALSE. You should end up with the following: Next, add a method to sites toggle the button display text and toggle state. And a method to reset the StartPause button state and boyish thesis, button text. Stub Out the Start / Pause and Stop Button Handlers. You want the UI to properly disable and enable the buttons, plus you want to hook up the ToggleStartPauseButton method you just created to the Start button handler. Change the button handlers to the following:

Tip: You may wonder why the buttons have control variables that allow you to literature review enable and disable the buttons inside the button handlers. It is true that you are going to intolerance only going to start, pause, and stop a thread and generally these operations are very quick, especially in your simple application. However, in a production application thread start up or shut down may be significant, so you want to disable the button (albeit temporarily) to let the user know that something is happening and sites, also prevent users from 'double-clicking' on the button. Test the boyish dialog to make sure the start button toggles to pause properly and both start and stop buttons disable and literature, enable properly. Note: I took this screen shot after clicking the start button. Unfortunately, the disabled state doesn't come through on pilote essayeur automobile the screen capture.

Tip: It's a good idea to literature test the UI thread controlling functionality separated from the threading code. This is much easier when you keep the quindlen threading code abstracted from the UI as you have done here. Before you move on sites to implement the threading code, there are a couple of remaining UI tucancode.net that you need to complete. For the progress control to work, you need to initialize it first. To do this, y ou simply call the CProgressDlg.SetRange32() method. Quindlen! You'll do this at the end of the OnInitDialog( ) method. Defining the user defined messages. MFC UI controls are not threadsafe; that means you shouldn't manipulate the control from within the worker thread. For example, you aren't allowed to review sites call m_ctrlProgress.StepIt() from inside the worker thread. Actually, you 'may' get away with it on such a simple function, but more complicated MFC UI methods will give unreliable results.

Because you can't manipulate the essay on migration control directly from the worker thread , how do you tell the literature sites UI thread to update the UI? Simple; the standard practice uses a user-defined message and a PostMessage from the worker thread. Let me define two user-defined messages and stub out the message handlers. Open up the stdafx.h file and add: Define the message handler prototypes. Boyish Behavior Thesis! In CStartStopDlg.h, add: Important: Pay attention to the user-defined message signature because it has changed since VC6. In VC6, it used to be defined as afx_msg void OnMessageHandler( ); . In VC7 and literature review, above, it is defined as afx_msg LRESULT OnMessageHandler( WPARAM, LPARAM ); . If you use the old-style prototype, you will get an quindlen anna homeless essay, assertion error in the release build. Add the message map entries to the message map: Create the message handlers: Now that the UI code has been stubbed out nicely (and tested), you can move on to the sites threading code. Because your project is very simple, you could put all the thread-related code in the StartStopDlg.cpp file.

But instead of pilote essayeur, doing this, keep the threading code decoupled from the UI as much as possible. In fact, put all the threading code into a class that exposes only a few methods for starting, pausing, and stopping the thread. Once you create this class, you instantiate it as a member variable of the CStartStopDlg class. Stubbing Out the CProgressMgr Class. Use the sites Add class wizard to create a new class.

In the Solution Explorer, select the StartStop node, right-click and choose 'AddAdd Class. ' The 'Add Class' dialog will appear. Because you are going to intolerance boyish behavior add a generic C++ class, under 'Categories:', click on the Generic node and select the 'Generic C++ Class' template (see Figure 4). Press Open. Next, the literature 'Generic C++ Class Wizard appears. Theory Essay 2011! Under class name, enter 'CProgressMgr' and literature review sites, select the 'Inline' check box (see Figure 5).

The inline option only creates a .h file without a .cpp file. Press the 'Finish' button. Because your progress 'manager' code is simple, you can put the whole class declaration and implementation into the .h file—the 'Inline' checkbox option does this for you. The wizard creates a single ProgressMgr.h file containing: Add the Start, Pause, and Stop method stubs. The UI is going to essay in india interact with this class to Start, Pause, and Stop the thread, so it's time to stub out these methods. Make the following changes to the CProgressMgr class. The Start method takes a hWnd param.

When you wire this up to the dialog, you'll pass in the dialog's hWnd that will be used to send the user-defined progress and thread complete messages. Notice that I've added Sleep( 1000 ) statements in the method stubs. This is so you can test the UI after connecting up the class methods. With the sleeps in there, you should get the same UI behavior as in your earlier tests. Wiring Up the literature review CProgressMgr Code to the UI. Now that the progress manager code has been stubbed out, you can connect it to the UI. Add the #include ProgressMgr.h declaration. Modify the include section of theStartStopDlg.cpp and StartStop.cpp files. to add the #include ProgressMgr.h.

You should end up with the following for StartStopDlg.cpp and StartStop.cpp files: Declare the CProgressMgr instance. Add the CProgressMgr m_ProgressMgr variable to the CStartStopDlg class. Change the Start and Stop button handlers to connect with the progress manager. At this point, the UI code is completed. No more UI changes should be necessary. One of the goals of the article is to allow you to start , pause , resume , and stop a thread . You'll need to add a few variables to control the pilote thread and signal the thread to exit. For thread signaling, you are going to use an event rather than using status variables such as m_bRunning. In addition, you are going to pay close attention to properly shutting down the thread. Once you signal the thread to literature sites exit, you need to ensure that it has exited properly. Quindlen Essay! If the thread doesn't shut down properly, the application process can hang around even after the user has closed the dialog.

Defining the sites thread-related variables. Define a couple of quindlen anna homeless essay, handles for the thread and review, the shutdown event. Modify the CProgressMgr class and add the following: Initialize the member variables in the constructor. Although it's always good practice to initialize variables, with thread related code it's especially important. Modify the destructor to pilote add the cleanup code.

You'll define the ShutdownThread method next. The shutdown code simply checks whether the thread handle is null. If it isn't, it means the thread is running and signals the thread to literature sites exit by setting the ShutdownEvent and essay, then waiting for the thread to sites exit. If the thread doesn't exit in a timely manner, it uses terminate thread to close the thread. In your sample code, you don't care if the thread gets terminated, but in a real app, you may want to check whether the thread was terminated. You've made a halfhearted attempt to return an S_FALSE HRESULT status, but you aren't going to boyish check the value. In production code, you may want to define an HRESULT error code to indicate TerminateThread was used. A few words about TerminateThread: MSDN offers pretty strict warnings against using TerminateThread of TerminateProcess APIs.

This is because when a thread or process is terminated, the thread or process doesn't have an opportunity to call any cleanup routines, so there is a potential for sites leaking resources. See MSDN for more information. In your use here, the thread proc is going to be a static method of the CProgressMgr class and your cleanup will occur even if you have to scholarship terminate the thread because the CProgressMgr destructor will get called when the review sites dialog gets destructed. In addition, you aren't going to ever take longer than one second to quindlen anna homeless essay close, so terminate thread will never get called. You've coded it this way to literature provide more of a production code example. Along with the shutdown thread method, create another helper method to create the and juliet critical thread . The third parameter is your ThreadProc. The thread proc is the function where the actual work for the worker thread happens. Notice that you pass the 'this' pointer during thread creation. The 'this' pointer represents the current instance of the CProgressMgr class. This allows you to access any methods or member variables defined in the CProgressMgr class within our thread procedure. Note: To use _beginthreadex, be sure to sites add #include process.h to the stdafx.h file.

The thread procedure for this example is simple. All you want to quindlen homeless essay do is review, simulate performing some work in the worker thread and updating the foundation progress in literature review sites the UI (via the method NotifyUI that internally uses PostMessage( ) to send post a message to the UI). However, even in its simplicity there are some good techniques to be had: Passing the 'this' pointer of the CProgressMgr class allows the thread proc to access class members. Scholarship! During each loop iteration, the code checks whether the shutdown event has been set. Literature! This allows the thread to exit cleanly if the user stops the thread or exits the application.

Building out the pilote essayeur automobile Start, Stop, Pause, and Resume methods. At this point, building out the public interface methods becomes almost trivial. The Pause and Resume methods just check for a valid hThread and call either SuspendThread or ResumeThread . The Start method initializes the hWnd, ensures a thread isn't already executing by calling ShutdownThread(), and the thread uses the internal CreateThread( ) to fire off a thread. Stop just calls your internal ShutdownThread method. To complete the code, you just need to review sites create the GetShutdownEvent and NotifyUI methods. Press F5 to romeo and juliet critical run the application in debug mode. Once the dialog opens, press the review 'Start' button. You'll notice the button changes to 'Pause' and behavior, the progress bar begins to increment. If you press the 'Pause' button, the thread will be suspended and the progress bar will quit incrementing.

Pressing 'Resume' will resume the literature sites secondary thread and the progress bar will continue to increment. Quindlen Homeless! When the thread has completed its simulation loop, it posts a thread completed message to the UI; this causes the review sites UI to reset (in other words, the progress bar is cleared and the button text is set to 'Start'). During the thread operation, if the 'Stop' button is pressed, a shutdown event is set and the secondary thread will exit. Pressing the 'Cancel' button cleanly causes the thread to exit and closes the application. Copyright ?1998-2009 UCanCode.Net Software , all rights reserved.

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