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Affirmative essay

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bigraphy Kenneth Grahame, the third child of essay Cunningham and Bessie Grahame, born in Edinburgh at photography, 32 Castle Street on 8th March 1859. Affirmative Essay. When Kenneth was barely a year old his father obtained the post of Sheriff of Argyll and the family moved from Edinburgh to Argyll. At first they lived in Ardrishaig while a new house was being built for them. The building lasted more than two years and photography essay's the family also lived a few months in Lochgilphead before moving into essay, their new home in Inveraray. Their enjoyment of competition their new home was short lived. Shortly after Kenneth's fifth birthday, March 1864, his brother Roland was born but a few days later his mother went down with scarlet fever and died after a short illness on 4th April 1864. Kenneth himself also went down with the affirmative essay same illness and struggled with it for several weeks before he recovered. During his illness Granny Inglis, Bessie's mother, came from literature her home in Berkshire to Inveraray to nurse the child. After Kenneth's recovery it seemed clear that his father, who had succumbed once more to an old drinking problem, would be unable to look after the essay four children - Helen, Willie, Kenneth and Roland. The children moved to The Mount in Cookham Dene, the home of Granny Inglis.

Their time at Cookham Dene seems, in spite of the circumstances, to have been some of Kenneth's happiest years. The Mount was a charming old house with an attic and greatest essay writers time a large garden in which the children could play. The majestic Thames river was nearby, fostering in Kenneth a lifelong love for affirmative the river and boating. But at Christmas 1865, after living less than two years there, the chimney of the house collapsed and the children moved to Fern Hill Cottage in Cranbourne. This was a smaller house some miles away from essay of all time both Cookham Dene and affirmative the Thames. During their time at Cranbourne their father made an attempt to overcome his drinking problem and arranged that the children would return to live with him in Argyll.

The children spent most of the year of 1866 back at their former home in essay's, Inveraray. Essay. In the end their father relapsed into his old ways and essay in india left his children, his job and Argyll, to move to France. (It would seem that there was no further contact between Cunningham Grahame and his four children for the remaining twenty years of essay his life. Cunningham Grahame died in Le Harve in 1887 and crime Kenneth was the only one of his children to attend the funeral.) The children returned from Argyll to Cranbourne and essay Kenneth lived there until he started school at an essay about crime, St Edward's in Oxford in1868, at affirmative essay, the relatively late age of nine years old. His account in the essay he wrote in later life, Oxford Through a Boy's Eyes , would seem to indicate that he attended St Edwards in the years while it was still in literature sites, New Inn Hall Street and affirmative essay also attended the new school which opened on the Woodstock Road. His early years at school were a challenge but, by the time he left St Edward's, he achieved numerous academic and sporting accolades - Head Boy, captain of the Rugby XV, the Sixth Form Prize, the Divinity Prize and the Prize for Latin Prose. Undoubtedly Kenneth had the academic ability to study at one of the Oxford universities, and it was his dream to stem cell research, do so.

But his uncle, John Grahame, refused to finance his studies and Kenneth was obliged to seek a post in the Bank of England instead. He worked in affirmative essay, the family business while waiting for the post in the bank to become available. Kenneth lived at Draycott Lodge in Fulham with another uncle, Robert Grahame, in this period. Time. Interestingly, Kenneth sat an entrance exam for the Bank of England and received full marks in the English essay paper. This result was an unheard-of feat in the bank's history, both before then and afterwards. Two years later the post in affirmative, the Bank of England became available and in greatest essay writers of all time, January 1879 Kenneth took up the duties of clerk at the bank's headquarters in Threadneedle Street in London. Affirmative. As Draycott Lodge was quite a distance from the bank Kenneth also moved to lodgings in photography essay's, Bloomsbury Street around the same time. During his early years in London, and even before beginning to work with the Bank of England, Kenneth became acquainted with some leading literary figures and began to socialise in literary circles.

His own writings were kept fairly secret at first, with a few essays being published under a penname in St Edward's Chronicle, the school magazine of affirmative his former school. From 1888 onwards essays began to appear under his own name in literary magazines like St James's Gazette, the literature review National Observer and The Yellow Book. The National Observer, initially named The Scots Observer, had a number of other illustrious contributors including Kipling, Shaw, Stevenson and Yeats. Many of affirmative essay Kenneth's essays were republished as a collection under the title Pagan Papers in 1893 - the title representing an appreciation of nature rather than any form of sinister, medieval ritual! Among the essays which he wrote several were about a family of orphaned children - Edward, Selina, Harold, Charlotte and an unnamed narrator. These stories about the children and an essay about crime their guardians, referred to as the Olympians, have autobiographical overtones. Affirmative Essay. They appeared in the first edition of Pagan Papers but were excluded from all subsequent editions. Kenneth wrote several further stories about these children and in 1895 a total of eighteen of essay these short stories were published in The Golden Age . Dream Days , a further collection containing eight, somewhat-longer stories about essay, these children, was published in 1898.

The Golden Age and Dream Days , although they have paled into relative insignificance beside The Wind in the Willows and are not widely read today, received huge acclaim when they were first published. Photography Essay's. Another short story with the title The Headswoman - a humorous satire about an executioner - appeared in The Yellow Book in essay, 1894 and was later published as a stand-alone volume in 1898. It seems to have had an stem paper annotated bibliography unspectacular reception and, in the end, was the only book about adults for adults which Kenneth wrote. In this period Kenneth moved house several times - to 65 Chelsea Gardens around 1886, to 5 Kensington Crescent in 1894 and to 16 Durham Villas in 1899. He also spent many of his holidays in affirmative, Cornwall in these years, the seaside town of Fowey being one of his favourite resorts there. In 1897 Kenneth met Elspeth Thompson. On 22nd July 1899 they married in Fowey, spending a week in St Ives afterwards for their honeymoon. Competition. It was not a very satisfying marriage for either Kenneth or Elspeth. To make matters worse, Alastair, their only child, was born prematurely on 12th May 1900, blind in one eye and with an evident squint in affirmative essay, the other. Unfortunately the Grahame's could never quite acknowledge Alastair's physical disabilities and average intellect.

They, especially Elspeth, lived out a fantasy in which they believed that Alastair was a gifted child. Kenneth was promoted in 1898 to the position of company secretary of the Bank of England, a very significant position indeed, and, at thirty nine, he was one of the youngest men to ever hold that position. Although he was a keen sportsman at school and essay competition enjoyed walking and affirmative boating throughout most of his adult life, he did not have good health. This was probably a legacy from the scarlet fever he suffered just after his mother's death. In latter years at an essay, the bank Kenneth was absent for lengthy periods owing to illness. In 1903, in a bizarre incident, a stranger entered the bank?s offices in Threadneedle Street, asking to affirmative, see the Governor.

In the Governor?s absence Kenneth, in his role as company secretary, met him. The two exchanged a few words of introduction and then the stranger produced a pistol and fired off a few shots. Fortunately Kenneth was unhurt. Kenneth worked on essay in the bank for a few years after the gunman incident, But his health problems together with a general disenchantment with the bank prompted him to affirmative, take early retirement in June 1908. In 1904, when Alastair was about four years old, his father used to tell him bedtime stories.

Some of these stories were about a Toad, and indeed they were the time foundation of the latter chapters of affirmative essay The Wind in the Willows . Shortly after the period in which Kenneth told these bedtime stories he holidayed alone and wrote further tales of on migration Toad, Mole, Ratty and Badger in letters to Alastair. (These letters were preserved by Elspeth and published in First Whispers of the Wind in the Willows a few years after Kenneth's death.) After Kenneth?s retirement from the affirmative essay bank the Grahames moved from Durham Villas to an old farmhouse in Blewbury near Didcot. Life moved at more relaxed pace and Kenneth had time to complete The Wind in the Willows . Surprisingly, the first publishers rejected it, and it was not until October 1908, after several rejections and some pro-active campaigning by President Roosevelt in the United States, that the book was finally published by Methuen and Co. The critics, who were hoping for a third volume in the same style as The Golden Age and Dream Days , did not give The Wind in the Willows much praise. The majority gave it a negative review. The public loved it, however, and within a few years it sold in review, such numbers that many reprints were required. The rest, as the saying goes, is history. President Theodore Roosevelt visited Oxford in 1910 and gave a lecture in the Sheldonian Theatre.

The President of Magdalen College arranged the lecture and, in affirmative, response to a question on whether there was anyone he?d like to an essay about, meet, Roosevelt asked to see three or four people including Kenneth Grahame and Rudyard Kipling. Kenneth travelled down to Oxford to attend the lecture and spoke with Roosevelt afterwards. Affirmative. The success of The Wind in the Willows was tempered, however, by Kenneth?s domestic problems, especially those concerning Alastair. Although the Grahames attempted to live out a fantasy surrounding him, as if he were a gifted, intellectual, lovable child, the truth was somewhat different and, when he began to attend school that reality became evident. As his schooling progressed he became more and more of a misfit and the struggle to reach the academic expectations that his mother, in particular, had, became an unbearable burden. After unsuccessful spells at Rugby and an essay Eton, he attended Christ Church at affirmative essay, Oxford. On May 7 th 1920, in his second year there, he took an evening walk from Christ Church to about, a level crossing on affirmative essay the railway line between Oxford and Wolvercote. He was found dead on essay competition the tracks the following morning.

The verdict was accidental death, but virtually all the aspects surrounding his death point to suicide. The Grahames were devastated. After the funeral they spent a long time holidaying abroad ? almost all of the following four years. Most of this time was spent in essay, Italy. After The Wind in writers of all time, the Willows and, more so, after Alastair?s death, Kenneth wrote very little ? just an occasional essay or introduction to a book.

In 1924 the Grahames moved to Church Cottage in the village of Pangbourne. Pangbourne is affirmative quite close to Oxford and essay on migration it would seem that Kenneth made frequent trips to Oxford. Strangely, there is little or no record of him visiting London again in affirmative, these years. Sites. On July 6 th 1932 Kenneth died at his home in Pangbourne from cerebral haemorrhage and on affirmative essay the following Saturday he was buried in Holywell Cemetery in Oxford in the same grave as his son Alastair. Annotated. His wife Elspeth died in 1946. Kenneth Grahame was a gentleman of great intelligence, wit and literary ability, whose creations, especially the characters of The Wind in the Willows , have brought pleasure to countless millions.

It is hoped that this Kenneth Grahame Society website, launched 75 years after his death, will represent some little tribute to him and to his contribution to literature. A full list of the essay biographies of Kenneth Grahame can be found in the Bibliography section. Peter Green?s second edition (now out of print) and Alison Prince?s more recent work can be recommended.

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Nursing School and Program Guide of 2017. If you are looking for a career where you can help people while also earning excellent compensation in one of the fastest-growing career fields, pursuing a degree in nursing may be a good fit for you. Nursing School 411 is a comprehensive guide that will provide you with essential information about affirmative, nursing licensure and school options for earning a degree at the nation’s best nursing schools to start or advance your nursing career. There are over 2,600 colleges or universities that offer a nursing degree program in the United States. Essay! 1 1,631 schools offer certificate or associate degree programs for registered or practical nursing (ADN, LVN, or LPN). Affirmative! 1 1,033 schools offer a bachelor’s degree registered nursing program (BSN). 1 594 schools offer graduate nursing programs. 1 614 schools offer online nursing programs. An Essay! 2 254 schools offer online RN to BSN programs. Affirmative Essay! 2 149 schools offer online graduate nursing programs. 3 Over 900 schools are accredited by the Accreditation Commission for an essay, Education in essay Nursing (ACEN).

4 762 schools are accredited by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE). 5. Online #038; Campus Top Nursing Schools by State. Since nursing is a growing field and nurses always seem to be in cell research paper annotated bibliography short supply, there are plenty of options for potential nurses when it comes to pursuing a degree in the field. Many schools offer on-campus programs, both for those who are new to the field and for those who have already been working in affirmative nursing but wish to advance their careers by obtaining a degree. The programs geared toward working professional nurses offer flexible class schedules and many allow students to complete the practicum part of stem paper annotated, their degrees at their current place of employment. With the wide range of options available to you as a potential nursing student, you should do your research to ensure you attend a well-respected, accredited school. Affirmative Essay! Or let us do the work for you.

We feature accredited nursing colleges, schools, and universities for essay on migration, you to begin your search for the program that best fits your needs. Click on a state below to read more about accredited nursing programs specific to that state. To rank the top accredited nursing programs in the United States, we turned to US News #038; World Report, which arguably produces the most well-respected rankings of American colleges and universities. Their rankings of nursing programs are no exception. Below are the affirmative, top 10 graduate nursing programs in the US for 2017, followed by profiles of each. Located in essay on migration in india Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins School of Nursing (JHSON) offers several nursing degrees, with the essay, #1 accredited Master of Nursing (MSN) degree in the country. In addition, its Doctor of Nursing (DNP) program was ranked #2 in US News #038; World Report’s first ranking of DNP programs for greatest writers of all time, 2017.

JHSON also ranked high in specialty areas like administration (offering an MSN in Health Systems Management) and nurse practitioner (offering an MSN in affirmative essay Advanced Nursing Practice with various specialties). 46% of JHSON’s full-time faculty are fellows in the American Academy of photography, Nursing, and the program has a rich history, having been established in 1889. Johns Hopkins School of Nursing is accredited by the Commission on affirmative essay Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE) and on migration, its baccalaureate and essay, master’s programs are further accredited by the Maryland State Board of Examiners of Nurses. The baccalaureate, master’s, and doctoral programs are endorsed by stem cell research annotated, the Maryland State Board for Higher Education. The University of affirmative essay, Pennsylvania’s School of Nursing is not only ranked #2 by review sites, US News #038; World Report, but also ranked the #1 nursing university in the world by QS World University Rankings by affirmative essay, Subject in 2016, a ranking based on academic reputation, employer reputation, and photography, research impact.

Located in Philadelphia, Penn Nursing also ranks highly in sub-categories of nursing, such as administration and various nurse practitioner categories. In addition to graduate programs, Penn Nursing offers undergraduate programs like a BSN, a second degree, an RN Return program, and a PhD in Nursing. The Penn Nursing program is accredited by essay, the CCNE and the Pennsylvania State Board of Nursing. 3. University of California – San Francisco. The University of California San Francisco’s (UCSF) School of Nursing is ranked #3 by US News for top nursing schools.

In addition to its prestigious MSN program, UCSF School of Nursing also offers an online MS in about Healthcare Administration #038; Interprofessional Leadership (MS-HAIL) and a PhD in Nursing. The School of Nursing students work closely with the UCSF Medical Center Nursing staff. Over a century old, the school is accredited by the CCNE, the California Board of Registered Nursing (BRN), and has remained in the top two spots in NIH research funding awarded to schools of affirmative essay, nursing over the past ten years. Located in Durham, North Carolina, Duke University’s School of essay on migration, Nursing is tied for #4 best graduate school for nursing in affirmative US News #038; World Report’s 2017 rankings. It was also awarded the honor of the #3 best Doctor of Nursing program by US News. In addition to an MSN and DNP, Duke offers an competition Accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing (ABSN) for college graduates, a PhD in Nursing, and essay, certificate programs. It is accredited by the CCNE and has been in operation since 1931. About Crime! Duke offers online and essay, distance learning options as well as specializations in literature review nurse anesthesia and nurse practitioner areas.

Tied with Duke University for affirmative essay, #4 graduate nursing school by US News #038; World Report, the School of Nursing at the University of Washington offers a 2-year BSN, an ABSN for students who have already completed a bachelor’s degree in a non-nursing field, Graduate Certificate Programs in research bibliography Advanced Practice Nursing (GCPAPN), a Master of Nursing (MN) with a specialization in Community Health Nursing (MN-CHN), an essay MSN with a specialization in crime Clinical Informatics and Patient-Centered Technologies (CIPCT), a DNP, and affirmative, a PhD in Nursing Science degree. Located in Seattle, UW’s nursing program is college accredited by the CCNE and has been in existence since the early 1900s. It has been a top-ranked nursing school by US News for affirmative essay, 17 years. Ranked #6 by US News, NYU’s Rory Meyers College of Nursing offers a BSN in two formats (a 15-month accelerated program and cell research annotated, a traditional four-year program), an MSN, a Post-Master’s Advanced Certificate program, a DNP, and a PhD in Research Theory and Development. The accelerated BSN is for affirmative, those who have taken certain prerequisites while the four-year BSN is for high school graduates. Both BSNs prepare graduates to to take the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX) to obtain licensure. The MSN and Advanced Certificate program are designed for those who may already be working in the nursing field who are seeking more advanced roles in practice or administration. NYU College of Nursing (NYUCN) has a rich history and review sites, was founded in 1932. 7. University of Michigan – Ann Arbor. The University of Michigan’s School of affirmative essay, Nursing in Ann Arbor is ranked #7 by photography essay's, US News for essay, graduate nursing programs in 2017. On Migration! In addition to its award-winning MSN program, UM’s School of Nursing offers a traditional BSN, Accelerated Second Career BSN, a Certificates in Health Informatics, Post-Master’s Certificate, a Certificate in Nursing Education (CNE), a Staff Nurse EBP Certificate Program, a DNP, and a PhD.

Master’s programs include several Nurse Practioner specialization options, a Nurse-Midwife option, a Health Systems, Nursing Leadership, and Effectiveness Science MS program, and some Post-Master’s Certificate options. UM-Ann Arbor is accredited by the CCNE and approved by the State of Michigan’s Board of Nursing. 8. Case Western Reserve University. Case Western Reserve University’s Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing is tied for #8 in US News #038; World Report’s rankings of graduate nursing programs. CWRU offers a BSN, MSN, DNP, PhD, Post-Master’s Certificate, and Dual Doctorate PhD/DNP program. Affirmative Essay! The BSN and MSN programs are accredited by the Accreditation Commission for Education in Nursing, Inc. (ACEN) and the DNP program is accredited by the CCNE. In addition to being ranked #8 for best nursing schools by an essay about, US News, the university is is ranked #5 for the publication’s top DNP programs.

Established in 1923, the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing is well-respected in the field. Located in New York City, Columbia University’s School of Nursing is tied for 8th place in US News #038; World Report’s ranking of top graduate nursing programs in 2017. Columbia offers prospective students an MSN, a Masters Direct Entry (MDE) program (formerly a combined BS/MS program) for non-nurse college graduates, a DNP, and a PhD. The MSN offers specialty programs in Adult-Gerontology Acute Care Nurse Practitioner (AG-ACNP), Adult-Gerontology Primary Care Nurse Practitioner (AGPCNP), Family Nurse Practitioner, Nurse Anesthesia, Nurse Midwifery, Pediatric Primary Care Nurse Practitioner, and affirmative, Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner. The School of Nursing was founded in 1892 is part of one of the world’s most renowned academic health centers. Its programs are accredited by an essay crime, CCNE. Emory University’s Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of affirmative essay, Nursing is located in Atlanta, Georgia, and offers several nursing programs to potential students. At the baccalaureate level, there are three options: for high school students looking to begin a bachelor’s degree in annotated bibliography nursing, for affirmative, existing Emory or Oxford College (at Emory) students interested in earning a BSN, and for transfer students who have 60 hours of sites, college course credit already. Affirmative! Emory also offers an Accelerated BSN that takes 15 months and an essay about, an Accelerated BSN + MSN.

For traditional MSNs, Emory’s offerings include programs in Adult/ Gerontology Accute Care, Adult-Gerontology Primary Care Nurse Practitioner, Emergency Nurse Practitioner, Family Nurse Practitioner, Nurse-Midwifery, Neonatal Nurse Practitioner, Pediatric Acute Care, Pediatric Primary Care, and Women’s Health. The baccalaureate and master’s nursing programs are accredited by the CCNE. 8. University of Maryland – Baltimore. Baltimore’s University of Maryland School of Nursing was founded 125 years ago and affirmative, is tied with three other schools for #8 on the US News #038; World Report’s list of essay's, best graduate nursing programs in 2017. UM’s School of Nursing offers a traditional BSN, a Clinical Nurse Leader (CNL) master’s program for applicants with a bachelor’s degree in another field who wish to enter into nursing, an affirmative essay RN-to-BSN and an RN-to-MS program for current nurses looking to advance in their careers, an MSN in specialties like Community/Public Health Nursing, Nursing Informatics, Nurse Anesthesia, Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner-Family, a DNP, a PhD, as well as dual degrees in MSN/Master of essay competition, Business Administration (MBA) and essay, MSN/Master in Public Health (MPH). The US News #038; World Report ranks the best online graduate nursing schools based on factors like student engagement, selectivity of engagement, credentials and training of faculty, peer reputation, and student services including technology. Listed below are the essay competition, top 10 online nursing programs, followed by profiles of each. The University of South Carolina’s College of Nursing is ranked #1 by essay, US News #038; World Report’s best online graduate nursing programs of 2016. Both the MSN and DNP programs are delivered online, with some clinical courses requiring visits to Columbia, South Carolina, for photography essay's, check-offs with faculty. Online courses at USC are interactive and essay, collaborative, incorporating group work, multi-media presentations, and critiquing peer work.

The Blackboard course management is used and essay, courses are delivered asynchronously to accommodate a variety of work schedules. Affirmative! The online program requires the same workload as the face-to-face courses. 2. Medical University of essay on migration, South Carolina. Also located in South Carolina, the Medical University of South Carolina offers the #2 ranked graduate nursing program of 2016. An online MSN and affirmative essay, PhD are offered to prospective students. Research Paper Annotated Bibliography! The online MSN program prepares students for affirmative essay, advanced practice as a nurse practitioner, and the only difference from the on-campus program is that the online students use technology to learn. An orientation held in essay July requires attendance on campus, as well as a few courses requiring two-to-three day visits to campus. Students can complete their MSN in two years if studying full-time or three years of essay, part-time study.

Located in Chicago, St. Xavier University offers an online MSN, an online RN-BSN, and a nurse educator certificate and was ranked #3 by essay competition, the US News #038; World Report for best online nursing programs of affirmative essay, 2016. The online MSN program offers two tracks: Executive Leadership and in india, Clinical Leadership. The Executive Leadership track leads to high-level administrative roles in nursing while the Clinical Leadership track focuses on patient care. In addition to its online options, St.

Xavier offers a traditional Family Nurse Practitioner program and affirmative, an MSN/MBA dual degree option. The St. Xavier School of Nursing has been accredited by college, the National League for affirmative, Nursing (NLN) and the CCNE. Ohio State University’s College of college essay competition, Nursing in Columbus offers online options for its RN-BSN program, MSN specialities of Family Nurse Practitioner, Psychiatric Mental Health, and Neonatal Practioner, and a Master of essay, Applied Clinical and Preclinical Research (MACPR) offered entirely online. OSU’s College of Nursing was ranked #4 in essay on migration in india US News #038; World Report’s best online graduate nursing programs of affirmative essay, 2016 and literature sites, is accredited by the is accredited by the CCNE.

Distance learning students have the option of completing all coursework online and essay, completing clinicals in photography their own communities, making it a good fit for working professional nurses. Also ranked highly for its regular graduate in nursing program, Duke University also offers online and distance learning options for affirmative, MSN and DNP students. All core courses in the program are offered at least one semester every year and all majors are taught as distance-based or online. 100% online MSN programs include Nursing and Health Care Leadership and Nursing Education, and distance learning options, which require occasional campus visits, include Adult-Gerontology Nurse Practitioner programs, a Family Nurse Practitioner program, Pediatric Nurse Practitioner programs, and a Women’s Health Nurse Practitioner program. At Johns Hopkins University, some nursing options are offered in an online format. In fact, the university was ranked sixth in US News #038; World Report’s best online graduate nursing ranking. If you are just starting out in the field, you can take your health prerequisite coursework online at Johns Hopkins, including courses such as Anatomy, Biostatistics, Human Growth and Development, Nutrition, Microbiology, and Physiology. The school also offers online options for photography, some of its master’s programs including Clinical Nurse Specialist, Health Systems Management, and the combined Health Systems Management/Clinical Nurse Specialist. In addition, two post-degree options are offered online: a Nurse Educator Certificate and a Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner Certificate. The Unviersity of Texas at affirmative Tyler offers some of research bibliography, its nursing degrees online and was ranked seventh by US News for its online options. UT-Tyler offers an entirely online RN-BSN-Mobility in Nursing Education (MINE) degree that takes as little as 12 months of intensive study.

It features minimal clinical time, since students are already working in nursing. The university also offers an online MSN degree, with tracks in Online Nursing Administration-MSN, Online Nursing Education-MSN, Web-Enhanced Nurse Practitioner, RN-MSN, Online MSN-MBA, and an Online Nursing Education Certificate. 8. Georgia College #038; State University. Accredited by the CCNE, Georgia College #038; State University’s School of Nursing was tied for number 8 in the US News best online nursing degrees rankings for 2017. Affirmative! The RN-BSN program is fully online, while optional meetings on campus for exams or presentations are offered but not required. About! MSN programs are also offered as fully online, such as Family Nurse Practioner, Nurse Educator, and Family Nurse Practitioner with a Concentration in Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner. A Nursing Post-Masters Certificate in essay Family Nurse Practitioner is also offered as a completely online option. Tied for annotated bibliography, #8 by essay, US News #038; World Report, the University of an essay about, Cincinnati offers some award-winning online options for nursing students. Their online MSN includes specialty options in essay Adult-Gero Primary Care Nurse Practitioner, Family Nurse Practitioner, Nurse-Midwifery, and Women’s Health Nurse Practitioner.

The MSN online curriculum at the University of Cincinnati aims to on migration, develop new skills and refine skills its students already have. UC boasts that the support it provides its online students is affirmative essay so complete that you may forget you are attending online instead of on campus. Located in Stony Brook, New York, Stony Brook University – SUNY offers distance learning MSN options that can be taken mostly online with some on-site requirements. The Stony Brook University School of Nursing offers an MSN in Nursing Education, an in india MSN in affirmative essay Nursing Leadership, a Nurse Practioner program with specialties in college essay Adult-Gerontological Health, Family Health, Perinatal/Women’s Health, Neonatal Health, Pediatric, and Psychiatric/Mental Health, an MSN in Nurse Midwifery, all of affirmative essay, which can be taken in a distance learning format with some on-site requirements. In addition to these MSN programs, Stony Brook offers Advanced Certificate Programs in the same subject areas, which can also be obtained through their distance learning program. Tuition for nursing school will vary based on a variety of photography, factors. The type of degree you get will affect the price (certificate, associate degree, bachelor’s degree, master’s degree, etc.). In addition, factors like whether you are in-state or out-of-state can vastly affect the tuition and affirmative essay, out-of-pocket costs. If you choose a nursing school that is in your state of residence, the cost might be much lower than if you choose one that is in a different state. Greatest Essay Writers! For example, at the University of California — San Francisco, the #3-ranked graduate nursing school by US News, tuition for essay, in-state students is $8,935 per semester while out-of-state students pay $13,017 per semester, a difference of over literature review $13,000 per year if Fall, Winter, and Spring terms are completed.

Even if you choose a highly-ranked online program, such as the MSN graduate program at the Medical University of South Carolina, the cost per semester is $8,116 per semester for in-state tuition and $9,553 for out-of-state tuition; you should expect costs for good online programs to be similar to affirmative essay, costs for on-campus programs. In addition to tuition, don’t forget to budget for room and board if you are completing a BSN, books, and other miscellaneous costs that you will encounter. Admission requirements will vary widely by school and by type of program. Most BSN programs will require a high school diploma and some prerequisite coursework related to in india, nursing. Accelerated BSN programs may require letters of recommendation, a personal statement, and transcripts from affirmative essay, any school previously attended. A minimum GPA is also usually required, usually of around 3.0 on a 4.0 grading scale. Most MSN programs will require bachelor’s degree, either in nursing or another field, a resume or CV showing at least one year of an essay, work experience, and official Graduate Record Exam (GRE) scores. Sometimes the GRE requirement is waived if your undergraduate GPA is high enough. Doctoral-level programs require all of the above in essay addition to other criteria. Keep in mind that admission into graduate-level nursing programs, especially highly-ranked ones like we highlight on this page, can be very competitive. Role Sought / Average Pay: Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) or Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN)/ $44,030 6.

Typical Format: On-campus or hybrid (on-campus clinicals required) Can be done fully online?: No. Typical Timeframe to Complete if Full-Time: 12-18 months. Types of about, Schools Offering: Community college or technical/ vocational school. Health Assessment Pathophysiology Introduction to essay, Pharmacology Principles of Medication Administration Medical Surgical Nursing Mental Health Nursing Gerontological Nursing Nursing Theory and an essay, Science Intravenous Therapy Information Technology in Healthcare Practical Nurse Clinical. Logical Next Career Step: Registered Nurse. Role Sought / Average Pay: Registered Nurse (RN)/ $71,000 7. Degree Type: Baccalaureate.

Typical Format: On-campus, online, or hybrid. Can be done fully online?: Yes. Typical Timeframe to Complete if Full-Time: 18 months-2 years. Types of Schools Offering: 4-year private or public school. Physical Assessment for the Professional Nurse Nursing Care of the Older Adult Leadership and Management in the Changing Health Care Environment Theories and Models of Nursing Practice Health Law and Ethics Critical Issues in Nursing Field Work in Leadership and Management Research and Scientific Evidence in Nursing. Logical Next Career Step: Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) Role Sought / Average Pay: Registered Nurse (RN)/ $71,000 7. Degree Type: Baccalaureate. Typical Format: On-campus or hybrid (on-campus clinicals required)

Can be done fully online?: No. Typical Timeframe to Complete if Full-Time: 3-4 years. Types of Schools Offering: 4-year private or public school. Introduction to Professional Nursing Foundations of Professional Nursing Care in affirmative Illness Nursing of Families Pharmacotherapeutics in Nursing Practice Psychosocial Nursing Pathophysiology for photography, Nursing Practice Concepts in Community Health Nursing. Logical Next Career Step: Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) Role Sought / Average Pay: Nurse Midwife, Nurse Anesthetist, Nurse Practitioner/ $118,373 8,9,10. Typical Format: On-campus, online, or hybrid. Can be done fully online?: Yes (RN to MSN) Typical Timeframe to Complete if Full-Time: 2 years.

Types of Schools Offering: 4-year private or public school. Improving Nursing Practice Evidence Based Practice #038; Research Nursing Research Foundations of Nursing Informatics Nursing Management of Complex Health Issues Pathophysiology, Pharmacology and Assessment Research in essay Nursing and Health Care Health policy and Planning in essay the US Theoretical Foundations for Nursing. Logical Next Career Step: Supervisorial role or owner of own practice. We have gathered several school reviews from both past and current students of affirmative, nursing programs across the United States. You can read more reviews of nursing programs in your state by clicking on essay's your state in the list above. Indiana University of Pennsylvania: “I graduated with a BS in essay Nursing from IUP and it prepared me for a career as a registered nurse. This was a state school, I got a well-rounded education. The first year was the essay on migration, easiest since all my classes were liberal studies. My sophomore year is when my clinical started. Essay! The one thing I disliked was I had to drive from photography essay's, Indiana to affirmative essay, Pittsburgh twice a week for my clinical. This is costly for an essay about, a college person with no extra income.

Throughout the affirmative, last six semesters, clinical experiences in patient care are provided in acute and long-term care facilities as well as community settings.” -Student at IUP. Arizona College: “Arizona College was a great experience. Stem Research Paper Bibliography! They’re a great school if you’re looking to get into essay the medical profession, particularly if you’ve been out school for awhile. The staff is extremely helpful. The class sizes are small, so there’s plenty of opportunity to focus on literature and improve your weak points. They do everything in their power to help place you once you finish their program. They include services like resume building, mock interviews, and affirmative, if for any reason you end up leaving a position, they’ll do what they can to help you find a new one. I looked into several nursing programs and talked with the student administration of a variety of colleges in the area and I’m really glad that I chose Arizona College.” -Student at essay competition Arizona College.

San Joaquin Delta College: “I am currently enrolled in San Joaquin Delta College’s nursing program and I just can not believe the greatness of the program. A lot of people think community colleges are not good schools, but I’m spending close to nothing at SJDC while people at UOP, which is right down the street, are spending thousands for the exact same education. Affirmative! It’s crazy. Literature Sites! Anyways, I feel SJDC is really helping me put my foot in the door into the world of affirmative essay, healthcare. My favorite part of the program would have to be the clinicals. Sure, I learn some things sitting in the classroom, but I’m a hands on learner. I feel I learn twenty times as much in one day of clinicals than I do in a week of theory days. The only thing I would improve about the greatest essay writers, nursing program is make it easier to get into, but I guess it’s hard to get into any nursing program.” -Student at San Joaquin Delta College.

University of Pikeville: “Attending UPIKE was awesome. The staff was always there if you needed them. Affirmative! They would even help you after office hours. It was defiantly more like a family than anything else. The clinicals were awesome in giving you real life experience. The curriculum was difficult but, it helped me out so much when I started working because I knew the basics. Clinicals started at the main beginning if the program and went throughout all 4 years. Literature Sites! This was a game changer because it gave us insight on our profession from the very start.

I was blessed to have attended such a great University and have such great professors as well. I can’t say enough good things about this program and this campus!” -Student at University of Pikeville. Florida A#038;M University: “Attending FAMU was the best experience of affirmative essay, my life. While the college, nursing program was extremely difficult and essay, challenging I feel that it accurately prepared me for the real world of nursing. The best thing about the stem cell annotated bibliography, nursing program was the sense of being a family. Majority of the affirmative, students I started with I ended with and writers of all time, we still communicate to this day. There weren’t many things that I disliked but I do feel like the staff wasn’t on the same page all of the time as it relates to affirmative, what is expected out of the program. Research Paper Bibliography! Early clinical call times at the hospital also caused high stress levels and anxiety. Essay! Overall I wouldn’t trade my experience in college essay FAMU’s nursing school for anything in the world.

Thank you.” -Student at affirmative essay Florida A#038;M University. University of literature review, Louisiana at Monroe: “I chose the essay, online degree from ULM so that I continue working and get my BSN at the same time. I felt like I received a lot of support from college essay competition, my adviser. She helped me to identify the missing prerequisites that I did not take when I got my ASN from the local community college. Instead of having to affirmative, incur the extra expense of taking those classes in essay competition order to qualify for the online program, I was able to test out of those courses.

Overall I found the experience more enjoyable than going to affirmative, traditional campus classes. Even though the an essay crime, classes were online, my instructors were always quick to get back to me when I had questions or concerns. Many of the classes included mandatory participation in group discussion about that week’s lesson and I feel that I was able to essay, comprehend more of the lesson materials and express myself better in photography essay's writing. Essay! Many of the instructors worked in nursing and were able to provide legitimate experiences that related to the core content of the courses. I am very satisfied with my choice of the RN to BSN online program from ULM. They were affordable and knowledgeable.” -Student at University of Louisiana at Monroe. University of Rhode Island: “I had a great experience. I graduated in paper 2013. Affirmative! The main thing that stuck out were my professors. They were very knowledgeable and helpful. I was able to look at a few of an essay crime, them as mentors and gain a valuable relationship with them.

I have had some helpful conversations about the affirmative, field with them one on one, with advice that I will never forget. Someone of them were even on a first name basis. I had a great experience with the clinical portion. An Essay! My only minor thing I disliked was how far one of them was compared to my others. The program was hard and there were definitely weeks where I felt like all I did was study.

However overall I loved the affirmative essay, experience, and I met some lifelong friends in the field.” -Student at University of Rhode Island. South Dakota State University: “My experience at the SDSU Accelerated Nursing program was great. I chose the essay in india, program because it was still accepting applications last minute when I had missed deadlines at other programs. After applying, I realized that I would be moving over 1700 miles away for nursing school. What really got me was the fact that this program is only 11 months. It is labeled as a 12 month program but we started January 5 and graduated December 10. Affirmative! That is moving at an incredible speed. After a month of the program, I knew I loved it. There are two main staff members that are instructors for cell paper, the majority of your nursing theory and skill based classes.

What’s great about them is that they still know what they are doing. Even while being full time instructors, they are ICU and ER nurses still practicing. For specialty classes like OB or Psych, nurses from that field are brought in to teach giving you great insight with what they deal with daily. The program flies by and you find yourself taking boards with information that is only a year old at affirmative essay the very oldest, much better than a traditional four year program. It’s more than I could ask for essay competition, and I feel lucky to have spent my time there.” -Student at South Dakota State University. Oakland University: “I felt most of the professors were very good at communicating information in a way that can be easily understood. One thing I disliked about the program was having to take classes like “Nursing Informatics” in which we learned about the technology and computer interfaces we would be using as a nurse. I thought that this class was a huge waste of my time simply because 95% of people in a nursing program these days can easily figure out how to affirmative, work the various programs we will encounter, plus, we all get on an essay about crime the job training in affirmative the programs when we get hired. I also disliked the inconsistency in the way clinical instructors graded our performance in certain clinical rotations. Now, this wasn’t always an issue, but once or twice the sites, instructor graded my group much harder than other instructors graded their groups.

For the first half of the program I felt like there was a ridiculous amount of work and affirmative, studying to be done, however by the last semester I felt that the of all, course load was definitely reduced, and because I already knew most of the affirmative, information, the work I did have to essay writers of all, do wasn’t hard to accomplish.” -Student at Oakland University. University of affirmative, Akron: “I attended the University of an essay, Akron as soon as I graduated high school. Affirmative Essay! It was a wonderful experience from dealing with my advisers to dealing with the stem cell paper bibliography, professors. Every professor I had enjoyed his job and had passion in teaching his students. Any questions I had about nursing, current and future employment they were just a phone call or email away. What I remember most is essay how I first struggled with antimony and my one professor in bibliography particular really helped me understanding the curriculum and took extra time out of his day to affirmative, make sure I could move forward. I also had friends that were in literature sites the nursing program as well at different university and they ended up switching to Akron because of the hands on experience they gave.” -Student at University of essay, Akron. University of Nevada, Las Vegas: “UNLV offers an amazing nursing program, with lots of hands-on practical work and some great instructors who’ve been in the field for a long time. I really felt like they helped me to learn not only the science behind nursing, but how to an essay, care for patients and affirmative essay, how to treat their emotional and spiritual needs beyond just the diseases they were suffering from. I especially enjoy working with children.

I feel like I finally have a career that will carry me forward through my life, and I owe the UNLV School of Nursing a huge debt of gratitude for all the work they did to help me get there. It’s not easy (I remember seeing the sun rise while studying more than a few times…), but it’s worth it. And worthwhile..” -Student at photography essay's University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Marymount University: “Marymount University was a great place to earn my degree. It is a fairly small University so even in essay the nursing program, which was one of the bigger programs, my classes were very small. Photography Essay's! Being near the DC area gave us a chance to affirmative essay, work at some great hospitals including Inova Fairfax, and even a Psych rotation at PIW which was probably my favorite. Because the program size was small pretty much everyone got their first choice when it came to stem, internships. I did mine in labor and essay, delivery, and while I didn’t really enjoy that rotation all that much, it definitely gave me some insight into an area of nursing that I did NOT want to pursue. Many of the professors and students were on a first name basis and that made it very comfortable when asking questions in class or even reviewing papers and assignments with them. Photography Essay's! If I had to do it all over again I feel confident that I would still choose Marymount as my first pick.” Student at essay Marymount University. University of Iowa: “My experience with the University of Iowa Nursing Program was definitely above average.

I had friendly, well informed instructors, and felt that I learned a lot from them and their own personal experience in the field. One complaint that I had was the lack of an essay about crime, online coursework available. It seemed to be that some coursework could be done online, and affirmative essay, learned when/where it was convenient for greatest writers of all time, us, and then we could have later been tested on it. Beyond that, I was very satisfied with my educational experience, and think that Iowa State would be an affirmative excellent choice for anyone interested in pursuing a career in the health industry. I enjoyed my clinicals and really appreciated the hands on experience that it provided.

Knowing in greatest essay writers time advance what I would be doing once I graduated helped me appreciate the importance of what I was learning at affirmative essay the time.” -Student at University of Iowa. West Coast University: “I loved this school. They taught us everything we needed to know in the classroom, then had us practice on dummies and finally put us in real situations in actual hospitals so we could get actual experience. All the instructors I had were very helpful with everything and literature, were glad to share their knowledge and essay, experiences with us. The school also provided additional resources for us for photography essay's, tutoring, getting on the job experience and more. The staff were also very helpful in bringing various financial aid programs to my attention to help me pay for school.

Overall, I am very pleased with my experience at essay this university.” -Student at an essay West Coast University. University of North Alabama: “I attended nursing school at the University of North Alabama and graduated with a Bachelor’s Degree in Nursing in 2007. This was the essay, greatest accomplishments of my life. Nursing school was very hard, but the staff at essay UNA made it the very best it could be. The professors were strict, but fair. The classes were extremely difficult and each instructor was willing to answer any question I had, and affirmative essay, there were many! They were willing to go out of their way to make sure I had the training I needed to succeed, in nursing school and later in the real world. They prepared me very well for literature review sites, my NCLEX. My only concern with the nursing school came when I began to work as an affirmative RN.

I realized I didn’t have as much “hands on” training as other new graduate nurses. Most of an essay about crime, our studies were concentrated in the classroom. Despite this, I look back and treasure my time as a nursing student at UNA and would recommend this nursing program to anyone looking to become an RN. The college is beautiful and affirmative essay, I received everything I needed there to become a successful RN.” -Student at essay on migration in india University of North Alabama. How to get into nursing school depends primarily on the type of program you are looking for. Affirmative! Programs such as certificates and LPN programs will usually have less-stringent requirements than those such as BSNs, MSNs, and essay on migration in india, DPNs.

Requirements will also depend on affirmative the school and program you choose. Some examples of the most basic general requirements for a BSN program are a minimum of a 3.0 GPA, letters of essay on migration in india, recommendation, and a high school diploma. Most MSN programs require a bachelor’s degree (if it is in nursing, it can speed up your MSN process), a GPA of 3.0 or higher, letters of recommendation, and some nursing experience. Look at the admission requirements for the school you are considering to get a better idea of what you will need to gather. How long does nursing school take?

Again, the number of years of school to become a nurse depends on affirmative essay the type of greatest time, program you choose. As a general rule, if attending full-time, LPN programs typically take one-to-two years, BSN programs take four years, and MSN programs take two years. Affirmative Essay! Many nursing students are balancing school with a career, so full-time study may not be possible. In this case, the above number of years will be greater. Nursing school can be one, two, four years or greater, depending on the type of program and the amount of time you have to devote to your studies. How much will nursing school cost?

The amount of money you will need for nursing school also depends upon the program you choose. Typically, in-state tuition is cheaper than out-of-state tuition and as a general rule private schools cost more than public schools. You will need to check with the school(s) you are considering to greatest essay of all time, see what it charges per affirmative semester. The best nursing schools may cost more than the less-renowned schools. Is it okay to go to nursing school online or should I attend an on-campus program? In most cases, attending a nursing program online is perfectly acceptable in on migration today’s job market.

While most undergraduate nursing programs will require in-person clinicals, others like RN-to-BSN or MSN programs may be offered fully or mostly online. Some nursing schools will even allow you to affirmative, count time at your current job toward your clinical requirement. What are the typical nursing school prerequisites? Nursing school prerequisites will depend on the type of program you are entering (BSN, MSN, LPN, etc.) and the individual program requirements, so you should check with your school of choice for the most accurate list of stem research, prerequisites. Typically, BSN programs will require the successful completion of prerequisites like Human Anatomy #038; Physiology, Biology, Chemistry, Human Growth and Development, and other standard general education coursework.

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Affirmative Action Essay, Research Paper 3

aite essay Whether you are a victim or an innocent by-stander of this topic, you cannot deny that you have encountered the controversy of chewing gum in school; more specifically, the affirmative essay, classroom. There are many points of view on the topic; whether they are social, scientific, victim, or enforcer. The arguments mainly take on one of two sides, the “pro-chewers” and greatest essay the “anti-chewers.” So which side are you on? I suggest you read on before you make that decision. Before we cover the affirmative, topics directly related to college essay you, let’s discuss some background aspects of chewing gum in school.

The best way to do this is by looking at the scientific point of view. Gum chewing is affirmative, proven to have calming affects on the mind and relaxing affects on the body, potentially increasing concentration in a classroom. Along with this, chewing gum helps to relieve stress which reduces violence in school. And on essay on migration in india top of all that it is proven that chewing gum reduces appetite, thus reducing the risk of obesity. Essay! These theories are all proven through experiments as described by college essay competition the CNN article, “Chew on this: Gum may be good for body, mind”. Affirmative! As you can see, scientists seem to generally be “pro-chewers.” A pack of Stride Gum; a popular choice among AITE students (photo credit: Max Reice) But as interesting as these scientific facts are, however, I’m sure people are much more concerned with their peers’ opinions on the topic. A lot of students are generally “pro-chewers;” many of who simply enjoy chewing gum.

There are a good number of students, however, that have some valid points as to competition why they believe chewing gum should be permitted in school. Sky Zangas, a sophomore at AITE, states that “one should be allowed to affirmative chew gum in class…it’s calming and college essay competition a nice sugar-boost for when you’re sleepy.” He later goes on to say that “chewing gum could be obnoxious.” Clearly this student is affirmative essay, a pro-chewer, but he does bring up a good point; obnoxious chewing. He and several other students have complained about people chewing gum too loudly and exaggerated in class. This does not, however, change these students’ views on chewing gum in school. A piece of chewing gum resting where it should not be (photo credit: April Kassman) So now you know what your peers think about essay, chewing gum in essay, school, but what do the teachers think about this topic? I’m sure you have encountered certain teachers who allow it and certain teachers who don’t. The truth is, the majority of AITE teachers either allow it or ignore it.

One teacher who is quite enthusiastic about chewing gum in school is Ms. Kassman. When asked about her general stance on chewing gum in school, Ms. Competition! Kassman stated that she “would like students to be able to chew gum, but only affirmative essay, if they are responsible.” She explained that the essay, disposal of gum after it has been chewed is an issue. Gum has been seen stuck under desks, on the floor, on affirmative the walls, on seats, and cell research paper bibliography so on.

If it weren’t for affirmative this problem, Ms. Kassman would even encourage gum chewing. She states that “gum chewing could promote subject recall, have a calming effect…[and] help students concentrate during tests.” Ms. Kassman sees the advantages of chewing gum, and even admits to chewing it herself in school. As a matter of fact, chewing gum helped her with a dental issue she had a few years back. Clearly this is college, one teacher who would love to encourage gum chewing (with proper guidelines of course). Have you started to essay see a pattern yet? It is clear that chewing gum is in india, majorly thought of affirmative, as a positive school activity. It was quite hard to find negative comments on this issue, and college even the ones I found are somehow connected to positive attributes.

In general, all the interviewees that I spoke to agree that chewing gum should not only be allowed but is quite helpful to students in school. Maybe the current rules against gum chewing should be lifted; the affirmative essay, majority of the school would agree after all. Literature Review Sites! Voki; Making Education Fun - July 12th, 2012 When you Combine a Curious Teenager with a Stair Railing - June 1st, 2012 Dropbox; Sharing Simplified - February 14th, 2012 Chewing Gum, a Cause of Concentration or Distraction? - January 6th, 2012. I often see chewed gum on the floor of AITE. When I do, I wonder who would do such a mindless thing? There are sooooo many trash cans in the building. Don#8217;t they realize someboday has to waste their time and energy cleaning it off the floor? What do they actually think when they dispose of essay, their gum in of all time, the middle of the essay, floor? Is it possible to do so without actually thinking about it?

Does the gum just fall out of their mouths and they don#8217;t notice? Do they do it with malice? Is it arrogance? Is it subversion? What do they think if they accidentally step in gum? Do they think oh well I drop my chewed gum in college competition, the middle of the floor so I guess I deserved it? Or do they think I can#8217;t believe someone would do that? Or do they think maybe I shouldn#8217;t spit my gum out on the floor anymore? That is affirmative, a very valid point.

I realize I skimmed over this topic very briefly in my article; I suppose I was just trying to portray the differing perspectives of the essay in india, students and affirmative teachers. This topic does, however, affect multiple parties, including janitors. In my experiences and in the interviews I’ve conducted, I never thought about the cell annotated, issue of stepping on gum. Personally, I have observed that gum usually does not end up on the floor, mainly just the walls and corners. This is probably due to the admirable work of affirmative, our own janitors. Any piece of gum I see within school grounds is generally gone within a day’s time. As much as I would like to believe this is due to students being responsible and essay on migration picking such pieces up, I know all too well that it is the work of the janitors that cause this to happen. As a matter of essay, fact, you make a similar point to the one Ms. Kassman has made in this very article. During my interview with Ms.

Kassman, she stated that she would love to let students chew gum in school as long as students are responsible with the disposing of the gum. Maybe if the janitors didn’t clean up after our mess, and competition students start to step in their own filth, they’d realize what they’re doing every time they drop a piece of gum on the floor. Affirmative Essay! “The results were extremely clear and specifically we found that chewing gum targeted memory. Essay! People recalled more words and affirmative essay performed better in tests on working memory.” -Andrew Scholey, of Woolmer Hill University’s Human Cognitive Neuroscience Unit. Scholey says that chewing gum tricks the body into thinking it’s eating therefore releasing insulin. Stem Cell Bibliography! The insulin allows the body to absorb more glucose, a chemical necessary to make the brain function. This triggers the affirmative essay, hippocampus, the part of the brain that’s responsible for memory retention. I believe that while it#8217;s extremely annoying to find gum on seats and an essay about crime desks, gum-chewing should be embraced. Affirmative! It#8217;s a social norm, and banning it would be outrageous. I am doing a debate for research paper annotated bibliography one of essay, my classes and i personally think schools should allow gum, because keeps you focused, increases scores, some gum can be healthy for teeth, and since WorldWarI, U.S military soldiers have chewed gum for concentration. About! And, the schools could use picking up gum as a disaplen/detention. I thought that would be interesting points that not very many people may know.

i think that gum is essay, delicious. the only reason why its distracting is because people smack their gum..

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Affirmative Action Essay, Research Paper 3

Free Information Technology essays. 1.1 Problem Statement. Volume, variety and velocity of affirmative data is increasing day by day, it leads to the generation of big data and by using existing techniques it is not easy to process such big volume of data and mine frequent patterns that exist in college competition data . Perform Association Rule Mining and FP Growth on Big Data of E-Commerce Market to find frequent patterns and association rules among item sets present in affirmative database by using reduced Apriori Algorithm and reduced FP Growth Algorithm on top of Mahout (an open source library or java API) built on Hadoop Map Reduce Framework. Big Data refers to datasets whose amount is stem cell away from the ability of characteristic database software tools to analyze, store, manage and capture. This explanation is deliberately incorporates and subjective, a good definition of essay how large a dataset needs to college essay be in order to be considered as big data i.e. we cannot define big data in terms of essay being big than a certain number of terabytes or thousands of gigabytes. We suppose that as technology advances with time the volume of greatest essay writers of all datasets that would be eligible as big data will also rise. Affirmative Essay! The definition can differ from sector to sector; it is depending up on which kind of software tools are normally present and what size of datasets are general in a particular industry. According to greatest writers time study, today big data in many sectors will range from a few dozen terabytes to affirmative essay thousands of terabytes. ' Velocity, Variety and Volume of data is growing day by day that is why it is not easy to manage large amount of data.

' According to study, 30 billion data or content shared on face book every month. Issues/Problems while analysing Big Data: ' According to research annotated analysis, every day more than one billion shares are traded on the New York Stock Exchange. ' According to affirmative analysis, every day Facebook saves two billion comments and greatest of all time, likes. ' According to analysis, every minute Foursquare manages more than two thousand Check-ins. ' According to analysis, every minute Trans Union makes nearly 70,000 update to credit files. ' According to analysis, every second Banks process more than ten thousand credit card transactions. We are producing data more rapidly than ever: ' According to affirmative study processes are more and college, more automated.

' According to study people are more and more interacting online. ' According to study systems are more and more interconnected. We are producing a variety of data including: ' Social network connections. ' Product rating comments. Big data[5][6] is the term for a collection of data sets so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using on-hand database management tools or traditional data processing applications. Gartner, and affirmative, now much of the essay, industry, continue to use this 3Vs model for describing big data [7]. In 2012, Gartner updated its definition as follows: Big data is the term that can be defined as high velocity, volume and variety of information assets that require new forms of processing to enable enhanced result building, nearby discovery and process optimization [8]. Additionally, a new V Veracity is affirmative essay added by some organizations to describe it. Big data has evolved like a very important factor in the economic and technology field, as Similar to in india other important factors of invention like hard-assets human-capital, high in numbers the present economic activity merely could n't take position exclusive of it.

We can say that by looking at current position of the affirmative, departments in the US economic companies have minimum of 200TB data storage on an average if considered(as double as the size of stem research paper Wal-Mart's data warehouse of affirmative essay US-retailer in 1999) having one thousand workers approximately. In fact many departments have 1peta-byte 'PB' (in mean) data storage per organization. The growth of the essay time, big data will be continue to reach to an high extent, due to the modern technologies, platforms and affirmative, their logical units and capabilities for stem cell research handling large amount of affirmative essay data and college essay, also its large no. of upcoming users. Utilization of Big Data will turn Out to Be a Key base of Competition and Growth for Individual Firms: Usage of big-data has become an important medium for the leading firms to get better in their data handling. If we consider an example of a retail company, the affirmative, company can increase its operating margin by 60% approximately by embracing their big data. Essay's! The chief retailers like UK's TESCO and many more use big-data to affirmative keep market revenue-share in time their pocket against from their local competitors. The emergence of big-data also has capability to evolutes new growth opportunities for those companies who have both combine and industry analyzing data. Essay! Even the companies who have their data at the mid-point of literature review sites large info data about the objectives and demands of their users, services, buyers, products suppliers can be easily analyzed and captured using big-data.

The big-data usage in any firm or company can facilitate the healthy and more enhanced analyzing of data and its outcome, by deploying the big-data in the firm there will be lower prices of product, higher quality and healthy match between the company and customer's need. We can say that the affirmative essay, step forward towards the acceptance of big data can improve customer surplus and acceleration of performance along all the companies. Figure1.1: Types of data generated. Significance of Big Data: ' The administrator of the Obama has announced the idea of big-data Rd which is very useful to handle the several obstacles and problem which government is facing now a days. Their idea comprised of 84 big-data programs with 6 different departments. ' Big data study played a big role for Obama's successful 2012 re-election campaign. ' Ebay.com uses two data warehouse that consists of 7.5 petabytes and 40 petabytes as well as 40 petabytes Hadoop cluster for merchandising, recommendations and search. ' Everyday, Amazon.com also handles large amount of data (in millions) and literature, its related back-end operations as well as requested queries from third part sellers on an average of more than half million. ' More than 1Million consumer-transactions processes every hour in Walmart, that is affirmative put into databases and stem cell research paper bibliography, estimation is done on data. ' Facebook also has 50 billion pictures of its user and process it very well.

' F.I.C.O. that is affirmative 'Falcon Credit Card Fraud Detection System' handles and secure 2.1-billion active a/c worlds widely. ' According to estimation, the size of the data stored of business and companies is increasing to stem research annotated the double in affirmative every 1.2 years. ' Windermere Real Estate uses various 'GPS signals' from nearly 100 million drivers which help new home seekers to determine their critical times to from work around the times. ' Hadoop is an open source that is greatest essay of all called free software framework or technology for processing the huge datasets for certain kinds of affirmative problems on the distributed system. ' Hadoop is an open source piece of software that mines or extracts the sequential and non-sequential big-data for a company and then integrates that big-data with your present business intelligence ecosystem. ' Hadoop works on the most important principle called Map-Reduce (map task reduce task), the main work of the map-reduce is to divide the essay competition, input dataset into number of independent pieces which are then processed in affirmative essay the parallel-manner by the map tasks.

' The output generated by the map task will become input to the reduce task after performed sorting on the output by framework. ' A file system is used to store the input and the output of the jobs. ' Some tasks failed during execution so framework takes care of monitoring the essay's, tasks, 're-executes' the failed tasks and scheduling the tasks. History of Hadoop: ' The main or the very important organization from affirmative essay, where the history of Hadoop began is none other than best company of the world 'Google'. ' Google published two academic research papers on the technology called 'Google File-System' (GFS) and stem cell research bibliography, 'Map-Reduce' in the year 2003 and 2004.

' After some time these two technologies combined together and provided a good plat-form for processing huge amount of data in well-organized or effective manner. ' Doug Cutting also played a very important role to develop Hadoop an open source framework that provides the 'implementations' of 'Map-Reduce' and 'Google File System'. ' Doug Cutting had been working on the elements of open source web search engine called 'Nutch' that completely resembles with the technologies 'Map-Reduce' and 'Google File System' published in the Google's research paper. ' In this way Hadoop was born but when it was developed first time, it was named as the 'subproject of affirmative Lucene'. ' After that Apache open source foundation did some changes in it and research paper annotated, named as 'Apache's open source framework Hadoop' that can be used for essay processing Big Data in less time. ' Later Doug Cutting was hired by another big company that is greatest essay yahoo. Affirmative Essay! He and other employees of yahoo contributed a lot to Hadoop but after some time Doug Cutting moved to 'Cloudera' and his other teams was hired by on migration, an organization called 'Hortonworks'. ' Still we can say that yahoo has the biggest contribution to develop Hadoop. What is Apache Mahout? ' Mahout is an API or we can say that it is the library of scalable 'machine-learning' or 'collective-intelligence' algorithms like (classification, clustering, collaborative-filtering and frequent-pattern-mining) that is mailnly used for mining frequent item sets, it takes a group of item sets and affirmative, identifies that which individual items usually or mainly appear together.

' When the size of data is too large then in such kind of circumstances Mahout is used as the best 'machine-learning' tool because number of algorithms like clustering, pattern mining and collaborative-filtering has been implemented in mahout, it can produce the outputs fast when used on top of Hadoop. History of an essay about Mahout: ' The life of affirmative essay Mahout was started in the year 2008, at this time it was treated as the essay of all time, 'sub-project' of one of the major project of essay Apache named as 'Apache's Lucene Project'. ' The techniques like search, text-mining and essay, 'information-retrievel' were implemented by Apache's Lucene project. ' Some of the members of the project Lucene were working on the same technology that is 'machine-learning' areas, so these members also contributed to essay mahout and a separate project named 'Mahout' was generated which works on the principle to photography essay's predicts future on the basis of past.. ' The algorithms implemented in Mahout were not only implemented in affirmative essay the conventional way but also implemented in such a way that Mahout Framework and algorithms could easily process the large amount of data while working on top of Hadoop using Mahout. Now in the next section I will present the brief introduction of each algorithm that has been implemented on Mahout. ' Collaborative-Filtering is the technique of filter out some important data from the large amount of data which user browse, preference and rate, in other words we can say that collaborative filtering is the college, process of generating predictions on the basis of users past behavior or history and suggest or recommend users the top most predicted data or top 'N' recommendations so that it might be helpful for user in affirmative essay his/her future decisions. ' Collaborative-Filtering can be performed in stem research annotated two ways, item-based collaborative filtering and user-based collaborative filtering. ' User-based collaborative filtering is the technique that find neighbors having similar taste like user from the large amount of essay user preferences database then suggest or generates the recommendations for user but like and essay, dislike of user is not static so the recommendations generated using this technique is not so effective and bottleneck problem also occurs so Item-based collaborative filtering algorithm is used these days to generate recommendations for a user because it removes the problem of bottleneck and it first finds the items having similar relationship that user has liked from large pool of items and then generate the recommendations. ' Item based collaborative filtering works on the principle that similarity among item remains static but user likes and dislikes may change so this technique generates good quality of recommendations as compared to user-based collaborative filtering algorithm. ' Association-rule-mining is the technique used to find some rules on the basis of which the growth of an organization can be increased.

' There are number of algorithms on the basis of which we can find frequent patterns from the large of dataset, on the basis of frequent patterns we can generate some rules that would be really helpful to increase the turnover of an organization. Architecture of affirmative Map-Reduce: A paper on the idea named 'Map-reduce' was published by 'Google' in 2004 that was used as architecture. Map-reduce [9] named architectural framework is able to model the parallel processing and its implementation used to process the large amount of data stored. Using this technology, the on migration, requested query is splitted into sub queries and affirmative, then distributed among several parallel sites and processed parallel which is called the 'Map-step'. Then the results obtained are combined and delivered that is the about crime, reduce step.

This 'frame-work' was extremely successful; in fact the others wanted to make its replica. Therefore, Map Reduce framework's implementation named 'HADOOP' was adopted by an Apache open source project. Figure1.3: MAP-Reduce Flow. Existing Techniques and Technologies: The several technologies have been adapted and essay, developed to manipulate, analyse, visualize and an essay crime, aggregate huge quantity of data. These technologies and techniques describe from affirmative essay, numerous areas including computer science, applied mathematics, economics and statistics. A number of technologies and techniques were developed in the world having access to smaller variety and volumes in data but they have been effectively adapted so that they could be valid to very big sets or more dissimilar data. Big data needs outstanding technologies to resourcefully process large amount of photography data within sufficient intervened times. A 2011 report on big data suggests suitable Big Data techniques include:

A/B Testing: It is a technique in which the comparison between control group and affirmative essay, different test groups is done to obtain the answer that what changes can improve the essay, aim of it. Association Rules: A set of these techniques is affirmative used find significant relationships that are association rules between identifiers of sites huge data storage. Affirmative Essay! Numbers of about algorithms are present inside this technology to produce and essay, test feasible rules. Classification: A technique which is essay in india mainly used to classify the items present in affirmative essay the dataset and usually used to predict the nature of a class using other attributes. For Example: Prediction of weather on the basis of previous day's weather. Cluster Analysis: It is the technique used to group the number of photography essay's objects having similar properties into one cluster and other objects having similar properties with each other but dissimilar to other cluster group into one cluster. It is a type of 'unsupervised-learning' because training data are not used. This technique is in dissimilarity to classify a data mining technology called as 'supervised learning'.

Data combination and Data Integration: These are the techniques that gather the data from affirmative essay, several locations then analyze the data for producing good understandings in such a way that is much effective and possibly more precise. Machine Learning: A branch or part of greatest writers of all computer_science generally called artificial intelligence that is related with the design and improvement of algorithms, which allow computer systems to develop activities on the basis of realistic data. Natural language processing: NLP is the technique to process natural language using collection of techniques from the field of affirmative computer science which is named as AI linguistics also consists of number of algorithms to analyze human or natural language. Sentiment Analysis: This is an essay on migration, application of natural-language-processing that is (NLP) and affirmative, other critical techniques to photography recognize and affirmative essay, mine the knowledge from college essay competition, inputs. Some important aspects of its examination comprises of identifying the essay, product, aspect and feature. Big Data Technologies: There are emergent techniques that can be applicable to modify, analyze, aggregate read the big data. Big Table: Big table is the greatest essay writers of all, PDDS i.e. Affirmative! proprietary distributed-database-system built on the GFS i.e. 'Google-File-System' Encouragement for HBase. Business Intelligence (BI): A sort of application software builds to analyze, present and report data. Business Intelligence tools normally analyze data which is competition earlier stored in 'data_mart' or 'data_warehouse'.

Cassandra: An open-source DBMS (database management system) specially aimed to handle large quantity of data on a distributed system. Dynamo: Amazon developed a private DDSS that is distributed data storage system developed called 'Dynamo'. Google File System: This is a private distributed file system developed by Google as a part of the motivation for Hadoop. HBASE: This is an open-source non-relational DDB that is distributed data base based on Big Table product of affirmative essay Google. This project was initially developed by Power set but now it is managed by the Apache Software Foundation as part of the Hadoop. Map Reduce: This is college competition a software framework developed by the best company of the world that is affirmative 'Google' for essay competition handing out large datasets for specific kinds of requested queries on data stored at distributed sites. R: This is a software environment and an open source programming language for graphics and statistical computing.

Relational Database: This is a database formed up through a collection of tuples columns collectively stored in tabular form. RDBMS i.e. Relational Database Management Systems is the database system consists of structured-data and stored in form of tuples and columns. SQL is the best language for affirmative managing or maintaining relational databases. 1] A.Pradeepa, A.S.Thanamani. 'Hadoop File System And Fundamental Concept of Map Reduce Interior And Closure Rough Set Approximations [5]'. In this paper authors described that big data-mining and stem research paper, knowledge-discovery is the huge challenges because the volume or size of data is growing at an unprecented approximation scale. Map-Reduce have been implemented to affirmative essay achieve many large-scale computations.

Recently introduced or presented Map-Reduce proficiency has received or gained much more consideration and attention from essay, both the sides that is the industry for affirmative essay its applicability and literature review, the scientific-community in big-data analysis .According to the authors of this paper, for essay mining and finding some knowledge from big data, they presented an algorithm corresponding to the Map-Reduce based on abrasive theory, that are put forward to deal with the massive or large amount of data and also measured the performances on the large or big data sets to cell paper annotated show that the affirmative essay, proposed work can effectively or accurately processes the big data and find the results in less time. 2] Md.R.Karim1, A.Hossain, Md.M.Rashid. 'An Efficient Market Basket Analysis Technique with Improved Map Reduce Framework on review Hadoop [6]'. In this paper, authors described that market-basket analysis techniques are considerably important to every day's business decision because of its capability of mining customer's purchase rules by discovering that which items they are buying so frequently and essay, together. The traditional single processor and greatest essay writers of all, main memory based computing is not proficient of handling ever growing huge transactional data. In this paper an effort has been taken to remove these limitations. First author will eliminate null transactions and affirmative essay, rare items from the segmented dataset before applying their proposed HMBA algorithm using the college competition, ComMap-Reduce framework on Hadoop to generate the absolute set of maximal frequent item-sets. 3] J.W. Woo, Yuhang Xu. Affirmative! 'Market Basket Analysis Algorithm with Map/Reduce of Cloud Computing [7]'.

In this paper, authors explained the Map-Reduce approach that has been very popular or effective, in order to review sites compute or calculate enormous volumes of data, since google implemented its platform on essay google distributed file systems that is essay called (G.D.F.S) and Amazon web service that is called (A.W.S), provides its services with a platform called Apache Hadoop. 4] J.W. Affirmative! Woo, S.Basopia, Yuhang Xu. 'Market Basket Analysis Algorithm with no-SQL DB HBase and Hadoop [8]'. In this paper authors presented a new schema that is called H-Base which is used to process transaction data for research paper annotated bibliography market basket analysis algorithm. Essay! Market basket analysis algorithm runs on apache Hadoop Map-Reduce and read data from HBase and HDFS, then the transaction data is converted and sorted into essay on migration in india, data set having (key and value pair) and after the completion of whole process, it stores the whole data to the H-Base or Hadoop distributed file system that is HDFS. 5] D.V.S.Shalini, M.Shashi and A.M.Sowjanya. 'Mining Frequent Patterns of Stock Data Using Hybrid Clustering[9]'. In this paper, authors described that the classification and patterns in affirmative essay the stock market or inventory data is really significant or important for business-support and decision-making. They also proposed a new algo that is algorithm for mining patterns from large amount of about stock market data for guessing factors that are affecting or decreasing the product's sale. To improve the execution time, the proposed system uses two efficient methods for clustering which includes PAM that is Partitioning Around Medoids and (BIRCH) that is Balanced Iterative Reducing and Clustering using Hierarchies along with (M.F.P). The best well-organized iterative clustering approach that is called as PAM.

PAM is used initially or to start the clustering and essay, after that PAM was combined with frequent pattern mining algorithm that is called FPM algorithm. 6] W.Wei, S.Yu, Q.Guo, W.Ding and L.Bian. 'An Effective Algorithm for Simultaneously Mining Frequent Patterns and Association Rules[10]'. According to the authors of this paper algorithms like Apriori and college essay, FP -Growth break the problem of mining association rules into two different sub problems then find frequent pattern and affirmative, generate the required rules. About Crime! To solve the affirmative essay, problem we catch a deep insight of essay on migration in india FP-Growth algorithm and propose an essay, effective algorithm by essay on migration, using the FP-tree called AR-Growth Association Rule Growth which can concurrently discover frequent item sets and association rules (AR) in essay a large database. 7] J.W.Woo. 'Apriori-Map/Reduce Algorithm [11]'.

In this paper, authors presented number of methods or techniques for converting many sequential algorithms to the corresponding or related Map-Reduce algorithms. They also described that Map-Reduce algorithm of the legacy Apriori algorithm which has been common or same to collect the item sets frequently, arose to compose association rules in greatest essay writers of all data mining. Theoretically it shows that the proposed algorithm provides the high performance computing depending upon the number of Map-Reduce nodes. 8] L.Hualei, L.Shukuan, Q.Jianzhong, Y.Ge, L.Kaifu. 'An Efficient Frequent Pattern Mining Algorithm for essay Data Stream [12]'. In this paper authors proposed or we can say presented a novel structure NC-Tree (New Compact Tree), which can re-code and filter original data to compress dataset. At the same time, a new frequent pattern mining algorithm is also introduced on the bases of it, which can update and adjust the tree more efficiently. There are mostly two kinds of algorithms that is basically used to mine frequent item sets using frequent pattern mining approach. One is Apriori algorithm that is about crime based on essay generating and testing and an essay about crime, the other one is FP-growth that is based on affirmative dividing and conquering, which has been widely used in static data mining. For data stream, the frequent pattern mining algorithms must have strong ability of updating and adjusting to further improve its efficiency. 9] S.K Vijayakumar, A. Bhargavi, U. Praseeda and S. College! A. Ahamed. Affirmative! 'Optimizing Sequence Alignment in annotated Cloud using Hadoop and affirmative, MPP Database'[Sequence Alignment].

In this paper authors discussed about sequential-alignment of bio-informatics big data. The size of data is growing day by day in an essay crime the field of bio-informatics so it is not easy to process and find important sequences that are present in bio-informatics data using existing techniques. Authors of this paper basically discussed about the new technologies to store and process large amount of essay data that is 'Hadoop' and 'Green-plum'. Essay On Migration! Green-plum is the massively parallel processing technique used to store petabytes of data. Hadoop is also used to process huge amount of data because it is also based on parallel processing and generates results in very less time as compared to essay existing technologies to process the huge amount of data. Authors also mentioned about the proposed algorithm for stem cell research annotated bibliography sequential-alignment that is 'FAST-A'.

10] S.Mishra, D.Mishra and affirmative essay, S.K.Satapathy. 'Fuzzy Pattern Tree Approach for Mining Frequent Patterns from Gene Expression Data'[paper4]. In this paper the main focus of the authors on the 'frequent pattern mining of gene- expression data'. As we know that frequent pattern mining has become a more debatable and focused area in last few years. There are number of algorithms exist which can be used to frequent pattern from the data set. But in this paper authors applied the fuzzification technique on the data set and after that applied number of photography essay's techniques to find more meaningful frequent patterns from data set. 11] L.Chen, W.Liu. 'An Algorithm for Mining Frequent Patterns in Biological Sequence' [paper7]. In this paper authors describe that the existing techniques used to mine frequent patterns from large amount of biological data is essay not efficient and time consuming. They proposed a new technique called 'Frequent Biological Pattern Mining' or 'FBPM' to in india mine frequent patterns from large amount of biological data.

They also compared the results of both the techniques that are existing techniques and proposed techniques on affirmative the basis of execution time to find frequent patterns and number of patterns mined. 12] B.Sarwar, G.Karypis, J.Konstan, and J.Riedl. 'ItemBased Collaborative Filtering Recommendation Algorithms'. In this paper authors talked about the recommendation systems and photography, described various techniques to develop a good recommendation system that can be used to generate best recommendations for the users. Recommendation systems are the system with the help of which we can predict the affirmative essay, future after applying some collaborative-filtering algorithms, on the basis of users past activities. Two most famous collaborative-filtering techniques that we generally use to predict the future data that would be helpful for user on his/her next purchase are Item-based-collaborative-filtering algorithm and User- based-collaborative-filtering algorithm. Item-based- collaborative-filtering algorithm works on the principle of comparing the similarities between items and suggests those items to the users which are quite similar to his/her taste. On the other hand user-based-collaborative-filtering algorithm works on the principle of finding nearest-neighbours of target user which agrees on the similar item in terms of rating or having some similarity in essay items, find nearest users having similar taste to the target user and suggest those items to the target user which are liked by his/her nearest-neighbours. Design and affirmative, Implementation. 3.1 Proposed Methodology: According to our dissertation title we are working to find frequent patterns and on the basis of the photography, frequent patterns some recommendations would be suggested to the user using frequent pattern mining algorithm, Hadoop and Mahout. 1. First of all my main work is to collect the affirmative essay, real time data set of essay on migration E-commerce website.

2. Once the data set has been collected, next step is to affirmative clean the data set. Cleaning of dataset means remove the unwanted fields and convert the format of dataset into desired format. 3. After converting the dataset into on migration in india, a meaningful format, make a java program that can read the dataset and generate frequent patterns and association rules from the data. 4. For finding the affirmative essay, frequent patterns from the dataset apply the literature review sites, reduced apriori algorithm and create a map-reduce program that will implement reduced apriori algorithm. 5. Combine the program with Hadoop to find the frequent patterns in less time as compared to find the frequent patterns by executing program in eclipse. 6. Apply the dataset using mahout on top of Hadoop in affirmative essay distributed environment to find recommendations by using collaborative filtering approach.

7. Compare the execution time of finding frequent patterns and cell research paper bibliography, association rules using (Hadoop, Mahout) and simple java program. 3.2 Proposed Architecture: 'Hadoop is an open source that is called free software framework or technology for processing the huge datasets for affirmative certain kinds of problems on the distributed system. 'Hadoop is an greatest essay writers time, open source piece of software that mines or extracts the essay, sequential and non-sequential big-data for a company and then integrates that big-data with your present business intelligence ecosystem. 'Hadoop works on the most important principle called Map-Reduce (map task reduce task), the main work of the essay of all, map-reduce is to divide the input dataset into number of independent pieces which are then processed in the parallel-manner by the map tasks. 'The output generated by the map task will become input to the reduce task after performed sorting on the output by framework. 'A file system is used to store the input and the output of the affirmative, jobs. 'Some tasks failed during execution so framework takes care of monitoring the tasks, 're-executes' the failed tasks and scheduling the tasks. ' There are numbers of sub-components in the Hadoop but two core or main components of Hadoop are 'Map-Reduce' (Used for processing) and 'Google File System (GFS)' or 'Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)' (Used for storage). ' 'Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)' and 'Map-Reduce' are designed to keep this thing in mind that they both could be deployed on the single cluster and so that both processing system and paper annotated, storage system could work together.

Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS): ' HDFS stands for 'Hadoop Distribute File System', this is a file system basically used by Hadoop having distributed nature and produce high output per unit time. ' HDFS is the distributed file system because it distributes the data across number of nodes so that in case of failure data could be easily recovered. ' HDFS stores the data on number of data nodes after dividing the whole data into number of data blocks. ' The default block size is 64 MB but it is configurable according to the size of data is going to process using Hadoop. ' HDFS maintains the replicas of data block across multiple data nodes so that in case of any failure data can be recovered and functioning or processing would not stop. Benefits of HDFS Data Block Replication: ' Availability: There are very less chances of the loss of data if a particular data node fails. ' Reliability: There are number of affirmative essay replicas of data so if in any case data at particular node corrupts then it can be corrected easily. ' Performance: Data is literature sites always available for reducer for processing because multiple copies exist so this is the main reason it also increases the performance. ' Name node is the master node among all the essay, nodes and review sites, maintains or allocates the name of all the data blocks created by HDFS.

' Name node is also very helpful to manage the number of data blocks present on the data node. ' Name node also monitors all the other nodes present in the whole processing of data from HDFS to Map-Reduce and output generation. ' Name node also maintains the information about the location of affirmative essay each file stores in HDFS. ' In different sense we can say that name node maintains the data about data that is 'meta-data' in HDFS. File A is present on Data Node 1, Data Node 2, and Data Node 4.

File B is present on Data Node 3, Data Node 4, and Data Node 5. File C present on Data Node 1, Data Node 4, and Data Node 3. ' Name node is only point of disappointment for the Hadoop Cluster. ' Data nodes are the slave nodes of the master node i.e. name node and is generally used by HDFS for storing the data blocks. ' Data nodes are basically responsible to read the requests from client's file system and to write the requests from the client's file system. ' Data nodes also perform a very important function of creating the data blocks, replicated the data blocks on in india the basis of instructions provided by name node. ' Secondary Name Node: ' Secondary name node generally performs the affirmative, functions of throwing out the non-important things present inside the Name node regularly to prevent it from failure. ' Secondary name node enables the 'check-points' of the stem cell annotated, 'file-system' inside name node.

' Secondary node is the essay, backup for name node rather than it is a saying that it is a point of failure for name node. ' Map-Reduce are the kind of framework or we can say it is a programming concept used by Apache organization in its product Hadoop, for processing large amount of data. ' Map and about, Reduce functions have almost created in every programming language having the same functionality Java language. ' Map-Reduce was implemented to process large amount of data by dividing it into two parts that is Map part and Reduce part. ' Map function is used to 'transform', 'parse', 'filter' data and produce some output that will be treated as input for the Reducer. ' Reduce function takes the output generated from the Map function as its input and essay, sorts or combine the data for review sites decreasing the complexity. ' Map and Reduce functions both works on the principle of (Key and Value).

' Map function takes the input from essay, data node and with help of mapper divide the data into keys and values like (key1, value11), (key2, value12) and (key1, value21), (key2, value22). ' Combiner then summarizes the data and combine the sites, values relate to a particular key (key1, value11, value21) and affirmative essay, (key2, value12, value22). ' Reduce function then reduce the output generated by combiner and generates the final output (key1, value1), (key2, value2). Nodes in Map-Reduce: The complete Map-Reduce operation comprises of two important jobs that are 'Job-Tracker' which is essay competition known as the essay, 'Master Node' and 'Task-Tracker' which is known as the 'Slave Node'. ' Job-Tracker usually takes the request or tasks from the client and forward or assign these requests or tasks to the Task-Tracker on top of data node, then Task-Tracker performed the tasks with the help of photography essay's data node. ' Job-Tracker always assigns the tasks to the Task-Tracker on top of affirmative data node because data is always available there in the local repository.

' Sometimes it might not be possible for Job-Tracker to assign the review, tasks for Task-Tracker on data node then Job-Tracker tries to affirmative essay assign the tasks to Task-Tracker in essay in india the same rack. ' If in any case a node failure occurs or the affirmative essay, Task-Tracker which was processing the task fails then Job-Tracker assigns the same task to other Task-Tracker where 'replica' or copy of same data exists because data blocks are 'replicated' across multiple data nodes. ' In such a way Job-Tracker guarantees that if Task-Tracker stops working then it does not mean that the job fails. ' Task-Tracker is the slave node of the stem cell bibliography, master node i.e. 'Job-Tracker' which takes the request of essay processing the tasks from Job-Tracker and processes the sites, task ('Map', 'Reduce' and essay, 'Shuffle') using data present in data block of data nodes. ' Every 'Task-Tracker' is composed of number of slots that it means it can process number of tasks at the same time. ' Job-Tracker always checks that an empty slot is present on the same server whenever some task should be scheduled, if empty slots exist that can hosts the data node having data then Job-Tracker give the task to that slot of Task-Tracker otherwise Job-Tracker looks for the empty slot on the same rack of the machine. ' Each Task-Tracker sends some message in essay every second to inform the Job-tracker that it is alive and processing the task. ' Each Task-Tracker has its own JVM to process the task if in any case one Task-Tracker stops working it would be informed to affirmative Job-Tracker and Job-Tracker allocates some other Task-Tracker for that task and all other Task-Tracker would be working simultaneously without any kind of research intervention. ' After the essay, task has been completed the 'Task-Tracker' informs the Job-Tracker. What is Apache Mahout?

' Mahout is an API or we can say that it is the library of scalable 'machine-learning' or 'collective-intelligence' algorithms like (classification, clustering, collaborative-filtering and frequent-pattern-mining) that is mailnly used for mining frequent item sets, it takes a group of item sets and identifies that which individual items usually or mainly appear together. ' When the college, size of data is too large then in such kind of circumstances Mahout is used as the affirmative, best 'machine-learning' tool because number of algorithms like clustering, pattern mining and on migration, collaborative-filtering has been implemented in mahout, it can produce the outputs fast when used on top of Hadoop. ' Collaborative-Filtering is the technique of filter out some important data from the large amount of data which user browse, preference and rate, in other words we can say that collaborative filtering is the affirmative essay, process of generating predictions on the basis of users past behavior or history and suggest or recommend users the top most predicted data or top 'N' recommendations so that it might be helpful for user in his/her future decisions. ' All the preferences about different set of items from users can come from stem research paper annotated bibliography, explicit ratings or from affirmative, implicit ratings. ' Explicit Rating: It is the kind of technique in which user suggest his/her preference by giving rating to photography essay's a particular product or item on a certain scale. ' Implicit Rating: It is the affirmative essay, kind of technique in which user's preferences are generated on the basis user's interaction for products. ' With the help of collaborative-filtering we can predict or forecast the future on the basis of user's past activities or pattern. ' To predict the future on the basis of past activities of users we firstly make or create the database of the user's preferences for items and then apply some algorithms like nearest neighborhood to predict the future preferences of a user on the basis of his/her neighbors having the same perception or taste.

' As the size of data is increasing on college essay competition daily basis so that is the affirmative essay, main challenge that we require such kind of algorithms that can process millions of data and match a user preference with all other neighbors present in photography essay's database to essay get better prediction in essay on migration less time. ' Second challenge that we usually notice while implement collaborative filtering is that the items or the recommendations preferred to a user should be of better quality so that he/she could have like the recommending products. ' Two issues that we mentioned above are the essay, biggest challenges that should keep in mind while performing collaborative filtering and crime, should concentrate on recommendations suggest to user of good quality. ' Collaborative-Filtering can be performed in two ways, item-based collaborative filtering and affirmative essay, user-based collaborative filtering. ' User-based collaborative filtering is the technique that find neighbors having similar taste like user from the large amount of essay in india user preferences database then suggest or generates the essay, recommendations for user but like and dislike of user is not static so the college essay, recommendations generated using this technique is not so effective and bottleneck problem also occurs so Item-based collaborative filtering algorithm is affirmative used these days to about crime generate recommendations for a user because it removes the problem of bottleneck and it first finds the essay, items having similar relationship that user has liked from large pool of stem research bibliography items and then generate the recommendations. ' Item based collaborative filtering works on the principle that similarity among item remains static but user likes and dislikes may change so this technique generates good quality of recommendations as compared to user-based collaborative filtering algorithm. ' Item-based collaborative-filtering algorithm is one of the best algorithms used by recommendation systems, to generate recommendations using this algorithm firstly we make the set of items that user has rated earlier, after that find a set of (n) most similar items from this set having same similarities to the target item (i) then similarity of each item present inside the set of (n) most similar items is calculated. After the affirmative, computation of an essay similarities, calculate the weighted average sum of affirmative user ratings on literature set of similar items to find the best recommendations for the target user.

' Prediction computation and similarity computation are the two techniques used to find the future predictions and similarities among numbers of items. Similarity Computation for Items: ' Similarity computation is the technique used to 'find or compute' the value of similarity among items from large number of items and select the set of items having same similarity. ' Similarity between two items a and b is computed after isolated the users who have rated the items a and b, then use some similarity finding techniques to find the affirmative, similarity Sa,b. ' There are number of techniques that can be used for computing similarity between items are 'Cosine-based' similarity, 'Correlation-based' similarity, 'Adjusted-cosine' similarity. Let's we discuss all three techniques to find similarities between items are: ' Cosine-based similarity is the technique used to find the similarity between two items; this technique considers both the items for which similarity would be determined as the two vectors in the n-dimensional user space. ' Similarity is essay's measured as the cosine of the angle between both the vectors.

' Similarity between the two items a and b can be denoted as: Here '.' denotes the dot product of affirmative both the vectors. ' Correlation-Based Similarity is the other technique used to find the similarity between two items a and b. ' To find the similarity between two items using this technique we use the pearson co-relation method and find the pearson co-relation between two items that is Corr(a,b). ' To find the value of pearson co-relation more accurate, we removed the over-rated ratings of the two items that is the ratings for which users rated both items (a and b) and set of photography essay's users who rated both items (a and b) are denoted by U. Pearson correlation formula: ' Adjusted-cosine-similarity is the other technique to calculate the similarity between items so that it could be used for prediction.

' Similarity between two items generated using correlation-based similarity technique does not consider difference between corresponding user's ratings and over-rated rating of related pair. So the results generated are not so accurate. ' Adjusted-Cosine Similarity generates more accurate results as compared to correlation based similarity because it removes the drawback by- 'subtracting' the essay, average ratings of related user's from each extra rated pair. ' User-Based Collaborative filtering is the college competition, technique or we can say that it is an algorithm that is basically used to generate future predictions for a user on the basis of his/her past history or by using his/her neighbors having similar kind of taste. ' User-Based Collaborative filtering is the algorithm which works on the principle of generating recommendations for the user after finding his/her neighbor users from database of items and users, having similar kind of item ratings assigned and similar type of purchase history. ' After generating the nearest neighbors having same taste for the target user using user-based collaborative filtering algorithm then some techniques are applied to find the top recommendations for essay the target user. ' In this way user based collaborative filtering generates recommendations and it is review sites also known as memory based or nearest neighbor based algorithm to find or suggest best recommendations for the user. User-Based Collaborative-Filtering challenges:

1. Affirmative! 'Scalability': As the competition, number of users and items are increasing the size of 'user-item' database is also growing so it takes lot of time to find nearest neighbor of a particular user form large database having millions of users and affirmative essay, items exists. So scalability has become a big challenge for generating recommendations. 2. 'Sparsity': Recommendation system which is working on photography the principle of nearest neighbor fails in certain circumstances, when the number of active users who is purchasing some product is very large, so in such cases to find nearest neighbors for affirmative each active user is very difficult because of the sparsity. ' Association-rule-mining is the technique used to photography find some rules on essay the basis of which the growth of an organization can be increased. ' There are number of essay algorithms on the basis of essay which we can find frequent patterns from the large of dataset, on the basis of frequent patterns we can generate some rules that would be really helpful to increase the turnover of an organization. ' Algorithms like Apriori and college essay, FP-growth are mostly used to find the frequent patterns and affirmative essay, generate association rules but if the size of data is crime so huge then these two algorithm would take more time to generate rules thus decrease the efficiency of the algorithm. ' So we implemented both the algorithms using map-reduce technique and then implemented them on top of hadoop to affirmative essay find frequent patterns and greatest essay time, association rules. ' So Apriori and FP-growth [10] algorithms find the affirmative, frequent patterns from a set of on migration transactional dataset having transaction id and item set(i.e., ), where TID is a transaction-id and item set is the set of essay items bought in transaction TId.

On the other hand, mining can also be performed on data presented in paper data format like . ' Apriori algorithm significantly reduces the size of affirmative candidate sets using the photography essay's, Apriori standard but still it suffers from two problems: (1) generates a huge number of affirmative candidate sets, and (2) repeatedly scan the database and checking the candidates by pattern matching. ' FP-growth algorithm mines the complete set of frequent item sets without generating candidate set. ' FP-growth works on the divide and conquers principle. ' The first search of the database derives a list of frequent items in which the items are ordered into photography essay's, descending order by frequency. ' According to the descending list by frequency, the database is reduced into a frequent-pattern tree or fp-tree, which retains the item set and their association information. ' The fp-tree is mined or formed by initializing from each one (frequent length-1) pattern as an first suffix prototype, constructing its conditional pattern base and sub database which consists of the set of prefix paths in the fp-tree co-occurring with the suffix pattern then constructing its conditional fp-tree and performing mining recursively on such a tree.

' The pattern growth is achieved by the combination or concatenation of the suffix pattern with the affirmative, frequent patterns generated from a conditional FP-tree. How Association Rule Mining Works. Consider the following small dataset having three transactions to cell research know about how association rules mining works: T1: laptop, pen drive, speakers. T2: laptop, pen drive.

T3: mobile, screen guard, mobile cover. T4: laptop, speakers, pen drive. T5: mobile, mobile cover, screen guard. T6: mobile, screen guard. From this small data set we can find the frequent patterns and on the basis of frequent patterns we can generate some association rules using FP Growth algorithm. A frequent pattern is a group of some items that occur frequently in the transactions or data set. While we find frequent patterns, we also record the support along with each pattern.

Support is affirmative simply a count that tells us how many times a particular pattern appears in photography the whole dataset. Mobile cover = 2. Screen guard = 2. Laptop, pen drive = 3. Laptop, speakers = 2. Mobile, screen guard = 3. Mobile, mobile cover = 2. Laptop, pen drive, speakers = 2.

Mobile, mobile cover, screen guard = 2. Here we assume that support is 2 it means all the patterns with support equal to or greater than 2, will considered as frequent patterns. On the affirmative essay, basis of stem paper above frequent patterns we can construct some association rules which follow the minimum support and confidence = 60%. Mobile ' Screen guard (support = 3, confidence = (3/3) =100%) Mobile ' Mobile cover (support = 2, confidence = (2/3) = 66.66%) Mobile, Mobile cover ' Screen guard (support = 2, confidence = (2/2) = 100%) Laptop ' Pen drive (support = 3, confidence = (3/3) =100%) Laptop 'Speakers (support = 2, confidence= (2/3) = 66.66%) Laptop, Pen drive ' Speakers (support = 2, confidence = (2/3) = 66.66%)

On the basis of above small data set we are able to find some association rules that tells us that (screen guard, mobile cover are always buy with mobile phone) and affirmative, (pen drive, speakers are always buy with laptop. Approach to Design. 4.1 Flow of Implementation: 5.1 Installation of Hadoop: If you have already installed Ubuntu 12.04 or any other version then please follow the steps that mentioned below to install hadoop on Single node pseudo distribute that is called installation of hadoop on your local machine. Step 1: Java Installation. To work on Hadoop, first of all we require to install java on your local machine. So install the latest version of java that is Oracle JAVA 1.7 which is highly recommended to essay on migration run Hadoop. Here I am also using oracle java 1.7 for affirmative working on essay on migration in india hadoop because it is more stable, fast and have several new APIs. Following commands are used for Installing JAVA in Ubuntu:

Open the terminal using (ctrl+alt+t) then enter the following commands to install java: 1) Sudo apt-get install 'python-software-properties' 2) Sudo add-apt-repository 'ppa:webupd8team/java' 3) Sudo apt-get update. 4) Sudo apt-get install oracle-java7-installer. 5) Sudo update-java-alternatives -s java-7-oracle. The whole or complete Java Development Kit presents inside the (/usr/lib/jvm/java-7-oracle). When the installation has come to an end then do a check whether java or JDK has correctly set up by using command that is mentioned below. Figure5.1: Java Installed Successfully. Step 2: After successfully installed java, add a separate or personal user for affirmative hadoop that is hduser . Commmands for essay on migration create 'hadoop- user' and 'hadoop- group':

1)sudo 'addgroup hadoop' 2)sudo ' adduser --ingroup hadoop' hduser. After the successful completion of above steps, we will have a separate user and group for hadoop. Step 3: How to configure ssh. To work with hadoop on remote machines or at affirmative, your local machine, hadoop requires ssh access to literature review deal with its nodes. Therefore we required to affirmative configure ssh access on localhost for the hadoop user i.e. An Essay About! hduser that we created in the last step.

Commands to configure ssh access: 1)sudo apt-get install 'openssh-server' 2)sudo ssh-keygen -t 'rsa 'P' cat $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.pub $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys. Figure5.3: Configure ssh localhost. Step 4: Disabling IPv6. To work with hadoop on local or in affirmative distributed system we required to disable ipv6 on Ubuntu 12.04. First of all open the'/etc/sysctl.conf'file in photography any editor of your choice in ubuntu then add the below mentioned lines at the end of this file. Now it is the time to affirmative restart your system so that the changes that we have done could be reflected. After restarting the system we can confirm that whether ipv6 has disabled on your local machine by using the command that is mentioned below: 'Cat/proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/all/disable_ipv6' (If return value = '1' it shows that ipv6 has disabled)

Step 5: After performing the review, initial steps it is the time to affirmative essay install Hadoop version 1.0.4 on your machine. First of all download hadoop-1.0.4 tar file that is the stable or good release from apache download mirrors, then extract or untar the hadoop downloaded file to a folder named hadoop at usr/local/hadoop . A folder which is common to all the users, it is cell paper mostly chosen that we should install or set-up the hadoop into that folder. Use the below mentioned commands to untar the hadoop 1.0.4 tar file into hadoop folder: Move to local folder using cd/usr/local then use command mentioned below to untar hadoop 1.0.4: 1) sudo tar xzf 'hadoop-1.0.4.tar.gz'

2) sudo mv hadoop-1.0.4hadoop. Change the owner of all the files to hadoop group and the hduser user using the command: 1)sudo 'chown -R hduser:hadoop hadoop' Now it is the time to update the bash file which is present inside home directory $HOME/.bashrc : To update the bash file i.e.'.bachrc' for the'hduser'. Affirmative Essay! To open'.bachrc'file, you should be a root user then open it using the following command: 1)sudo 'gedit /home/hduser/.bashrc' Figure5.5: Open .bashrc file. Once the '.bashrc' will open then at the end of '.bachrc' file, add the following lines or settings: # set hadoop-related environment variables.

unalias fs-- /dev/null. Alias fs 'hadoop fs' Unalias- hls /dev/null. hadoop fs -cat $1 | lzop -dc | head -1000 | less. # Add hadoop 'bin/ directory'to PATH. Figure5.6: Update .bashrc file.

To verify whether it has been saved correctly or not, please reopen the bash profile by using following commands: 2) echo $hadoop_home. 3) echo $java_home. Step 6: Changes in Hadoop Configuration. An XML file is used to configure each component inside Hadoop. Essay! 'Common properties' go in affirmative core-site.xml', 'HDFS properties' go in essay hdfs-site.xml', and 'Map-Reduce properties' go in essay mapred-site.xml'. Essay! A conf directory is present inside hadoop folder where all the XML files are located. 1) Changes in affirmative essay 'hadoop-env.sh' First of all open the 'conf/hadoop-env.sh'file and set the 'JAVA_HOME'as: 2) Changes in 'conf/core-site.xml' Open the 'core-site.xml'file and add the following lines or code between the 'configuration ' /configuration' tags. A directory named as'tmp'is created where 'hdfs'will stores its temporary data.

The configurations that we mentioned above, we have used 'hadoop.tmp.dir' property to indicate this temporary directory but on stem cell paper annotated bibliography our local machine we are using as'$hadoop_home/tmp'. Commands to 'create tmp directory' and 'change ownership and permissions': 1) sudo mkdir -p $hadoop_home/tmp. 2) sudo chown hduser:hadoop $hadoop_home /tmp. 3) sudo chmod 750 $hadoop_home /tmp. 3) Changes in 'conf/mapred-site.xml' Open the 'mapred-site.xml'file and add the following lines or code between the 'configuration ' /configuration' tags. Figure5.10: Changes in 'conf/mapred-site.xml' 4) Changes in affirmative 'conf/hdfs-site.xml'

Open the essay's, 'hdfs-site.xml'file and add the following lines or code between the'configuration ' /configuration' tags. Step 7: creating Name Node Directory. mkdir -p $hadoop_home/tmp/dfs/name. chown hduser:hadoop /usr/local/hadoop/tmp/dfs/name. Step 8: Format the name node. Hadoop Distributed file system i.e. Affirmative Essay! hdfs is implemented on top of the local file system of your 'cluster'. So the initial step to starting up your hadoop installation is to about format the.

hadoop file system or name node. $hadoop_home/bin/hadoop 'namenode 'format' Step 9: Starting single node hadoop cluster. Open Terminal then goto /bin directory inside hadoop folder and start hadoop using command mentioned below: Now after successfully performed each step that we mentioned above, it is the affirmative, time to find whether. all nodes are running properly inside hadoop.

We can use the following command to check it. Output must be like mentioned below, if we are getting such kind of output it means hadoop is running successfully. 4841 task tracker. 4512 secondary name-node. 4596 job tracker. It means hadoop has installed successfully and working fine. 5.2 Installation of review Maven: Open the terminal then enter the below command to download and install maven. sudo apt-get install maven2. Open the '.bashrc' file and add the lines mentioned below at the end of bash file.

Set the affirmative, 'java_home' in '.bashrc' file. Export java_home= '/usr/lib/jvm/java-7-oracle' Add Java jre/ 'PATH' of directory. Run mvn --version to verify that it is correctly installed. If the message as shown below displays. It shows maven installed successfully. Figure5.15: Maven Installed Successfully.

5.3 Installation of Mahout: Download the competition, mahout source package in .zip format from the following link: http://www.apache.org/dyn/closer.cgi/lucene/mahout/ Extract the affirmative essay, folder into greatest writers, usr/local/mahout directory and check that pom.xml file exists inside it or not. Open the terminal and moved to affirmative usr/local/mahout directory then enter the following command: mvn install (to install mahout on top of hadoop) If the message as shown below displays then mahout installed successfully. 5.4 How to Run a Simple Job on Hadoop: 1. Move to literature review /usr/local/hadoop/bin directory and start the all nodes of hadoop using command. 2. Create a Word count text file inside local tmp directory using command. 3. Essay! Copy the text file from local tmp directory to hadoop distributed file system using following command: fs -copyFromLocal /tmp/Wordcount.txt /user/hduser/wordcountexample/Wordcount.txt.

Figure5.19: Copy text file from tmp to hdfs. 4. Find list of items present inside word count example directory using command: fs -ls /user/hduser/wordcountexample/Wordcount.txt. Figure5.20: List of items present inside wordcount. 5. Run the Word count file present inside word count example directory using following command: hadoop jar hadoop-examples-1.0.4.jar wordcount /user/hduser/wordcountexample /user/hduser/wordcountexample-output. Figure5.21: Run the word-count map-reduce job. 6. Find the list of items present inside word count example-output directory using following command: fs -ls /user/hduser/wordcountexample-output. 7. About Crime! Run the output file generated to affirmative show the output on console using command: fs -cat /user/hduser/wordcountexample-output/part-r-00000. Figure5.23: Run the crime, output file. Discussion of Results. 6.1 Find Frequent Patterns and Recommendations from Big Data: 1. Open terminal and start Hadoop using command ./start-all.sh.

Figure6.1: Start the hadoop nodes. 2. Convert the data set into .dat format which is required by shell script. 3. Add the affirmative, path of dataset into shell script. 4. Run the dataset on top of Hadoop using Map Reduce to competition find frequent patterns. Figure6.3: Start Mahout. ' To Run Mahout on affirmative top of Hadoop Set MAHOUT_LOCAL=True. ' After Setting MAHOUT_LOCAL=true, go to the bin directory where shell script is kept to find recommendations from dataset. ' Run the shell script by essay on migration in india, providing path of dataset. Presentation of Results. After successfully running the script on mahout and performing number of map reduce jobs by hadoop, it generates recommendations in very less time as compared to apply same data set using simple java program in eclipse . 1. Affirmative Essay! When the size of data was just 100 MB then Hadoop took 0.18705 minutes to stem cell research paper bibliography process the data and generate recommendations.

Figure7.1: Data set is affirmative essay running and Map-Reduce took place. Figure7.3: Map-Reduce Job completed. 2. When the size of data was 200 MB then Hadoop took 0.24005 minutes to greatest essay writers time process the affirmative, data and generates recommendations. 3. When the size of data was 1 GB then Hadoop took 4.689 minutes to college essay process the data and generate recommendations. When I started the dissertation work I mentioned that size of data is essay growing day by stem cell annotated bibliography, day in gigabytes or in terabytes volume, so it is not easy for an organization to handle such big amount of data and could do predictions, find patterns and recommendations from such large amount of data using existing technologies in affirmative essay less time. But we use Hadoop and Mahout both together then the overhead of an organisation to analyse the big data will become very less and execution time required to find patterns and recommendations will also be so less. We took around 500 GB of e-commerce website data then performed frequent pattern mining and paper annotated, collaborative filtering using Mahout and Hadoop. At the same time we performed the same work using simple java programs in eclipse then compared the execution time of getting outputs. Affirmative! We found that execution time to find patterns and recommendations using Mahout and Hadoop were very less.

In future we have lot of scope to do because now days the data generated on the e-commerce sites, first of all we collect the data and store it in college form of desired form then remove the essay, unwanted columns that are not required in the analysis process then apply the techniques to find patterns and products that can be recommended to the users. But in future we can predict the recommendation on the real time environment like we don't need to greatest writers time store data in database, we can directly apply some techniques on real time data that is generated frequently in daily and hourly basis, reduce the overhead and increase the affirmative, efficiency. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to essay writers of all time help you. Essay! Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of in india expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Information Technology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.

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Download a Resume Template That Employers Will Love. Are your Resume and online job search profiles not yielding you the affirmative, results you need to find gainful employment and finally afford to pay your bills? No doubt about it; it’s tougher to find a job now than it’s been in sites, decades. That doesn’t mean, however, that you can’t give yourself every fighting chance of affirmative snagging the next available job. While there is plenty to be said for an essay about crime, effective interviewee skills, the affirmative, absolute most important step for literature review, getting hired is writing a winning Curriculum Vitae. Without a highly attractive C.V, you’re just one of dozens or more applicants that begin to blend together after a while.

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If you feel the need to add more information to your curriculum vitae than what’s absolutely relevant, make sure that the most compelling details are on the first page and that it’s not crowded with words. In addition to your contact information, you should have: Relevant skills, relevant experience, and relevant education. If you have multiple jobs dating back for a number of years, try to list only the most relevant jobs within the past 5-7 years on the first page and either make a note that a more extensive job history is available upon request or attach a separate sheet with a complete history in case the reviewer is so inclined to read it. Whatever you do, DO NOT let a full page of outdated and irrelevant details take away from the in india, razzle and dazzle of the first page of your resume. Remember that your developed skills are more important than your experience. Yes, you need experience to demonstrate the fact that you’ve had time to essay, hone those skills, but employers need to know the capabilities you have that are relevant to the job for which you’re applying. The Verbiage of Your Curriculum Vitae.

You want your C.V to sound professional, but it doesn’t have to sound like it came out of the Oxford Dictionary. Remember, it’s not as though you’re writing a dissertation; you’re listing bits and pieces of concise and relevant information to essay on migration in india, present a snapshot of affirmative essay what you have to photography, offer. Refer to the job description and other material posted by your prospective employers. If they used industry-specific jargon, use the same jargon wherever applicable. Essay! Review their posted list of required skills and job duties and use it as a guide for listing all of your valid and in india, applicable skills and essay, job duties with previous employers. If you have additional skills or job skills than are not posted on in india, the job description by essay, your prospective employer, consider leaving them out. If you feel you must include them somewhere, follow the same rule as job history: Keep them off the first page. Instead, attach them at the top of the literature review, page containing your extensive job history. You have 2 primary goals for your curriculum vitae: Make it easy to read and make every word count.

In order to accomplish this, you need to use a font of at least 10-12 and make each section of your document stand out from the next by staggering blocks of information that take up different levels of horizontal space. For example, you may place your name, physical address, phone number, and email address at the top in the center. For contrast, you would place a sentence outlining your objective; perhaps something like: To obtain consistent and affirmative, long term employment with a company in an essay about, which my skills and essay, talents will be utilized and appreciated. Because that sentence will take the entire width of the page, your next sections should be small and centered. Greatest Writers! This would be a great place to list your skills. If you place your employment in the next section, that would be a great contrast to essay, your skills. Make a table with 2 columns and a few rows (just enough for essay's, your most relevant jobs). Add your title, previous employers, and their contact information in affirmative essay, the left column and your job duties on the right. College! Finally, underneath your employment history, enter your education information centered on the page. Employers may or may not be interested in affirmative, speaking with your personal references.

If there is any reason why your prospective employers shouldn’t speak with your previous supervisors, try to avoid putting their contact information on your Curriculum Vitae. Otherwise, there should be plenty of professional references in your format for them to review. You can post a sentence on on migration in india, the bottom of your Curriculum Vitae either inviting your potential employer to call contacts from your employment history and/or letting him/her know that you have a list of personal references available if requested. If you have room on the page after leaving plenty of space in essay, between each section, increase the font size of your name. If you have adequate or advanced linguistic skills, consider writing a short cover letter (3-5 small to moderate paragraphs) introducing yourself and outlining your skills, dedication, ambition, work ethic, and any other relevant piece of information that increases your appeal to an employer but may not have a proper place on your Curriculum Vitae.

Cover letters are easy to disregard if an employer isn’t interested, and competition, they can help to set you aside from other applicants if there is an interest in affirmative, learning more about you by reading your cover letter. You can either use the outline provided in this article or you can create your own curriculum vitae outline containing your name, contact information, and the basic sections you will need to fill out per application. Save the outline and consistent information in a master file, and on migration, once you’ve finished preparing a Curriculum Vitae for affirmative essay, a job, choose ‘Save as’ and create a specific name for it. To find your Curriculum Vitae more quickly and conveniently, consider using the same name and changing only the last word. For example, you may save your resume as ‘MyResumeCompany.doc’. Replace the word ‘Company’ with each different place to paper, which you submit your curriculum. How to Write a Great Cover Letter. Landing a job is undoubtedly difficult in today’s economy. Affirmative! Writing a great cover letter is probably the about crime, most important step you can towards landing the job of their dreams.

Why is affirmative writing a cover letter so important? It is the first thing a potential employer sees, and it will dictate whether or not the about, employer even looks at your resume. Even the most polished, professional resume doesn’t stand a chance against essay, a poorly written cover letter. How do you write a cover letter that not only a potential employer to read your resume, but also gets you invited for an interview? Writing a winning cover letter is not difficult if you follow a few simple steps: Just like an employer won’t look at in india, a resume that’s attached to a poorly written cover letter, the employer won’t even bother to read the cover letter if it’s a messy jumble of text.

To create a professional-looking cover letter, be sure to use plenty of white space. You should have, at a minimum, one inch margins and essay, double spaces between paragraphs. Follow the guidelines for in india, writing a basic business letter and be sure to include a simple, text-only letterhead. Your letterhead should be the same letterhead that appears on your resume. This is your one and only chance to essay, name drop, so take advantage of it. Potential employers want to know how you heard about the stem cell research paper, position. You should also identify the affirmative, specific position that you are seeking, and state that you are applying for this position.

Yes, it’s obvious, but cover letters follow a long-established pattern, and this isn’t the time to be a rebel. Finally, set the tone for the rest of the letter, and photography, briefly state what you will be discussing.. If you have more than a few years of experience in the field to which you are applying, your professional experience should be presented before your educational experience. First, write a topic sentence that presents one unified idea. If you’ve held several jobs in this career, find the one aspect that these jobs have in common that will most impress your potential employer. Essay! You also need to link this paragraph to crime, your educational experience. Similar to your employment paragraph, you need to develop one unified idea rather than simply presenting a list of all the schools you’ve attended and courses you’ve taken. Determine which aspect of affirmative your education is most important to the position you’re applying for and present it here.

A fourth and even fifth paragraph may be added if you need to present additional relevant information. Just remember to stem cell research, develop one idea per paragraph, and to keep the entire letter under one page. This is your opportunity to tie everything together, leading the reader to invite you to an interview. You need to affirmative essay, reference your resume and essay writers of all time, any other included attachments. In addition, you need to essay, politely, yet confidently state that you wish to be invited to an interview. An Essay About! Finally, state the easiest way for the employer to reach you, referring to the phone number and e-mail address in affirmative, your letterhead. For important documents like cover letters, you need to go beyond your computer’s spell check and greatest writers time, grammar check. Place the cover letter aside for a few hours, or overnight if possible, and look at it with fresh eyes. You might find errors that you didn’t see previously.

As a final step, ask someone, who you trust will do a decent job, to proofread your cover letter. Now, you have a well-written cover letter that will hopefully lead a potential employer to read your resume and ultimately invite you to essay, an interview. The rest is up to you! How to prepare for a winning job interview. In a competitive market for available jobs, potential candidates should put in the necessary time and cell paper bibliography, effort to make a solid impact. You must simply accept that it’s a buyer’s market, the buyer, in this case is the essay, organization. Your first job as the in india, seller is to sell yourself. You need to stand out from the other candidates like a house with a shiny red door in a cookie-cutter neighborhood. Assume your resume and cover letter is in a pile on a desk with plenty of affirmative others, therefore you must find a way to rise to the top.

You need to put yourself in a stronger position, instead of you trying to chasing the photography, job, make them convince you to take it. Affirmative Essay! Your mindset dictates the demeanor you portray. If you seem too desperate, you don’t make it to essay, the next step, however, too arrogant and doors will close. You have to put yourself in essay, the shoes of the interviewer and determine your moves every step of the way. Spend about five hours preparing for each hour of interview, you want to investigate how you can deliver value to the organization. By researching and probing how you can make an impact in an essay, the position, you are going beyond the canned responses of most candidates. Your resume should announce that you are qualified for the position. After the interview, you want to leave the impression that you can start the job tomorrow. Affirmative Essay! You want to contact somebody who does the same job at the organization or similar enterprise and ask several questions.

It’s a must that you discover the current challenges for the position within the stem research annotated bibliography, organization and the industry as a whole. Affirmative! The next step is succeed where so many candidates fall short, you want to show initiative by essay in india, suggesting ideas for the position. Hiring managers have so many job functions to perform, by proving that you not only essay, did research concerning the position, but proposed suggestions, you show tremendous potential. You would be surprised how those that have been performing the job for years have not expressed such aptitude. Be prepared to go beyond lip service, you want to demonstrate the homework you have done. Reaching out to a current employee performing the same job function puts you over the top. Don’t be shy or feel like you are intruding. Many employees have innovative ideas about how to perform their jobs better, tap into that information for free and then add your own spin. Use the power of essay imagination to stand out from the crowd, everybody else is going to essay, be following the same job interview tips that get recycled over essay on migration the web. Affirmative Essay! If you want to make a lasting impression, you must put in the sweat and effort. Find someone who you can practice with until it comes out natural.

Landing an offer in a tough economy requires considerable effort. If you can demonstrate you can make an impact in your interview, your name will rise to the top of the pack. Copyright Curriculum-Vitae.In 2013 - Contact : webmaster curriculum-vitae.in. All the Curriculum Vitae templates are at your disposal without any guaranty. The use of these Curriculum samples is at your sole risk.