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Bowlby#39;s Attachment Theory - Psychology bibliographies - in Harvard style. These are the sources and citations used to research Bowlby#39;s Attachment Theory. This bibliography was generated on shoot, Cite This For Me on Thursday, September 3, 2015. Your Bibliography: Mooney, C. (2010). Theories of attachment . St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press. Greatest Time. John Bowlby revisited – a retrospective review.
Your Bibliography: Harris, T. (2009). John Bowlby revisited – a retrospective review. Bereavement Care , 28(1), pp.27-30. Review and Criticisms of Attachment Theory. How To Shoot A Photo Essay. Your Bibliography: Lee, E. (2015).
Review and Criticisms of Attachment Theory . [online] Personalityresearch.org. Available at: http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/lee.html [Accessed 3 Sep. 2015]. The origins of how to attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Your Bibliography: Bretherton, I. (1992). The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Developmental Psychology , 28(5), pp.759-775. 1975 - Delacorte Press/S. Lawrence - [New York] Your Bibliography: Klein, M. (1975). The psycho-analysis of essay children . [New York]: Delacorte Press/S. Lawrence.
An object-relations theory of the personality. Your Bibliography: Fairbairn, W. (1952). An object-relations theory of the personality . How To Essay. New York: Basic Books. The maturational process and the facilitating environment. 1965 - International Universities Press - New York.
Your Bibliography: Winnicott, D. (1965). The maturational process and the facilitating environment . Shoot. New York: International Universities Press. An ethological approach to greatest essay writers, personality development. In-text: (Ainsworth and Bowlby, 1991) Your Bibliography: Ainsworth, M. and Bowlby, J. (1991). An ethological approach to how to a photo essay, personality development. American Psychologist , 46(4), pp.333-341. Attachment theory and John Bowlby: Some reflections. 2007 - Attachment Human Development. Your Bibliography: Stevenson-Hinde, J. (2007). Attachment theory and John Bowlby: Some reflections.
Attachment Human Development , 9(4), pp.337-342. Pittman, J. An Essay About. F., Keiley, M. How To A Photo Essay. K., Kerpelman, J. L. and essay on cricket, Vaughn, B. E. Attachment, Identity, and how to essay, Intimacy: Parallels Between Bowlby#39;s and Erikson#39;s Paradigms. 2011 - Journal of Family Theory Review. Your Bibliography: Pittman, J., Keiley, M., Kerpelman, J. and Vaughn, B. (2011). Attachment, Identity, and essay, Intimacy: Parallels Between Bowlby's and Erikson's Paradigms. Journal of how to essay Family Theory Review , 3(1), pp.32-46. How Do Early Attachments Shape Behavior? In-text: (Cherry and Cherry, 2015) Your Bibliography: Cherry and Cherry, K. (2015).
How Do Early Attachments Shape Behavior? . [online] About.com Education. Available at: http://psychology.about.com/od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01.htm [Accessed 3 Sep. Essay Of All Time. 2015]. The nature of the child#39;s tie to how to shoot a photo essay, his mother. 1958 - Internation Journal of about Psych-Analysis. Your Bibliography: Bowlby, J. (1958).
The nature of the shoot essay child's tie to his mother. Internation Journal of Psych-Analysis , 39, pp.350-373. An Essay Crime. SEPARATION ANXIETY: A CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. Your Bibliography: Bowlby, J. (1960). SEPARATION ANXIETY: A CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. J Child Psychol Psychiat , 1(4), pp.251-269.
Attachment theory and psychoanalysis: controversial issues. 2001 - Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review. Your Bibliography: Gullestad, S. (2001). Attachment theory and psychoanalysis: controversial issues. Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review , 24, pp.3-16. The Inconstant Principle Of Constancy 1983 - Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. Your Bibliography: Kanzer, M. (1983). The Inconstant Principle Of Constancy.
Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association , 31(4), pp.843-865. Something there is that doesn#39;t love a wall. John Bowlby, attachment theory and psychoanalysis. Shoot A Photo. Your Bibliography: Holmes, J. (1995). Something there is that doesn't love a wall. John Bowlby, attachment theory and psychoanalysis. In: S. Goldberg, R. Muir and J. Kerr, ed., Attachment Theory. Social, Developmental and Clinical Perspectives. , 1st ed. Essay On Cricket Is Waste Of Time. London: The Analytic Press, pp.19-43.
Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Mary D. Salter Ainsworth, Mary C. How To Shoot A Photo Essay. Blehar, Everett Waters, and essay on migration, Sally Wall. How To Essay. Hillsdale, N.J., Erlbaum, 1978[distributor, Halsted(Wiley), New York]. xviii, 392 pages, $24.95. 1980 - Infant Mental Health Journal. Your Bibliography: Lamb, M. Essay On Cricket. (1980). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation.
Mary D. How To A Photo. Salter Ainsworth, Mary C. Essay Of Time. Blehar, Everett Waters, and Sally Wall. Hillsdale, N.J., Erlbaum, 1978[distributor, Halsted(Wiley), New York]. xviii, 392 pages, $24.95. Infant Mental Health Journal , 1(1), pp.68-70. Your Bibliography: Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment . Shoot A Photo Essay. New York: Basic Books. Your Bibliography: Bowlby, J. (1973). Separation . New York: Basic Books.
Your Bibliography: Bowlby, J. (1980). Loss . New York: Basic Books. Grief and mourning in infancy and early childhood. 1960 - The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Your Bibliography: Bowlby, J. (1960). Grief and mourning in infancy and early childhood. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child , 15, pp.9-52. The Easiest Tool to Create your Bibliographies Online. Save Time and Improve Your Marks with Cite This For Me.
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GRE Argument Essay: How to Get a Perfect 6 Score. Of all the various types of how to essay questions on the GRE, Analytical Writing questions can seem like the trickiest ones to answer perfectly. Are Single Sex Schools Idea Essay. Not only do you have to write hundreds of words to answer the shoot a photo essay, Argument essay GRE question, but there’s also no one set correct answer that you can give and automatically get it right. So how do you reliably score well on how to essay, the GRE Argument essay? In this article, we’ll focus in on what goes into how to essay, a high-scoring response and offer some GRE Argument essay tips to help you consistently write essays that meet those standards. Do You Need a Perfect GRE Argument Essay Score? Practically speaking, no, you don’t need a perfect 6.0 on the Argument essay. GRE Analytical Writing scores are generally not all that important when it comes to admissions decisions—as long as you can get a 4.5, you’ll be set for essay most schools.
If you really want to highlight your writing ability (for example, if you’re an international student whose first language isn’t English), then scoring a 5.0 or above can be helpful; however, even then a perfect score isn’t necessary. Some writing intensive programs do have GRE Writing score cutoffs, but none of these cutoffs are going to a photo, be above a 4.5 . You can get a better idea of what GRE Writing score cutoffs for how to shoot different programs are with our article about what makes a good GRE Writing score. There are a few doctoral programs (e.g. How To. UChicago’s PoliSci Ph.D.) that have higher average GRE scores, but that’s more of a side-effect of the applicant pool than because that’s something the admissions committees look for. Students applying to top-notch doctoral programs in affirmative essay the humanities and shoot a photo, social sciences will need to have strong analytical writing skills, yes, but this is usually presented through writing portfolios or other materials required by grad schools. Quick side note: we've created the world's leading online GRE prep program that adapts to you and your strengths and weaknesses. Affirmative. Not sure what to study? Confused by how to a photo essay how to improve your score?
PrepScholar guides you, step by step. I want to affirmative, be clear - you don't NEED a prep program to get a great GRE score. How To Essay. But we believe PrepScholar is the best GRE prep program available right now , especially if you find it hard to organize your study schedule and don't know what to about crime, study. What Makes a Perfect-Scoring GRE Argument Essay? To get the most accurate picture of how to what goes into a perfect GRE Argument essay, we’ll turn to essay on cricket is waste, the official scoring rubric. This is the shoot essay, chart that the human GRE essay graders use for scoring the Argument essay on the real test, so it’s the how to a photo, best standard against which to hold your own practice essays. Below, I’ve done a side-by-side comparison of the different criteria needed to get a 4.0 vs. a 6.0 on the Argument essay GRE question. I know there is a lot of information to how to shoot a photo essay, process in that chart, so I’ve summarized it below by extracting the most important points. A Good Essay. A good GRE Argument essay:
Must limit its discussion to identifying and explaining the parts of the argument that are relevant to the essay task Must develop its ideas logically Must be organized and connect ideas smoothly Must include support for a photo the main points of the author’s analysis Must be well-written. To get a perfect score on the Argument essay, you must display mastery with each one of these items . Official GRE Argument Essay, Analyzed. Now that we’ve gone over the rubric in the abstract, it’s time to apply it to a high-scoring essay. By taking the rubric criteria and looking at how they are exemplified by a real essay, you’ll be able to get a better feel for what exactly it takes to an essay crime, get a perfect score . For this analysis, we’ll be looking at this officially-graded GRE Argument essay. Here’s the prompt the essay was written in response to: In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and how to shoot, fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. Affirmative. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river’s water and the river’s smell. How To A Photo. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River.
Use of the on cricket is waste, river for water sports is shoot therefore sure to increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year’s budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in are single idea which you examine the how to a photo essay, stated and/or unstated assumptions of the essay on cricket is waste, argument. Be sure to shoot a photo essay, explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. The sample Argument essay we’ll be looking at essay, discusses and disputes three different assumptions made by the argument : That the survey is a reliable measure of how to a photo essay preferences and should be used as a source of information to inform budget planning. That there is a link between the river’s odor and pollution and the lack of essay is waste of time residents’ recreational use of the a photo, river.
That plans to clean up Mason River will be effective. To analyze this essay, I’ll highlight places where the crime, essay fulfills each of the criteria for the 6.0 GRE Writing score level. A Photo Essay. The first of these rubric criteria is a description of what a perfect-scoring Argument essay should look like overall: Rubric description : In addressing the specific task directions, a 6 response presents a cogent, well-articulated examination of the argument and essay, conveys meaning skillfully. This description of what a perfect Argument essay should look like is much more general than the rest of the other rubric items and is more meant as a summary of what the other four items indicate than as a specific criterion in and of itself. If an essay meets all of the other four rubric requirements for a 6.0 Argument essay score, then it should fit under this broader description as well; if it does not, then that can be an indicator to the essay rater that she needs to reassess her scoring of the essay.
Above: portrait of a sad essay grader who, upon re-reading the holistic essay grading criteria, now has to reassess his scoring. The first non-general Argument essay rubric item relates to whether or not an essay accomplishes the assigned task. Rubric description : A 6 essay clearly identifies aspects of the argument relevant to the assigned task and shoot a photo, examines them insightfully. The sample essay succeeds in meeting both parts of essay on cricket this criterion. In the essay, the author pinpoints three different assumptions of the argument (survey is reliable, water being dirty is why people don’t use it for recreational sports, and cleaning it will work). Each of these claims is a key assumption upon which the argument depends, since if any one of these three claims proved unfounded, then the argument becomes illogical. The author also “examines [the assumptions] insightfully” by discussing the how to shoot a photo, implications of each assumption and what it would mean for the argument were the assumptions to prove false . If the author had merely identified the key elements of the argument without this kind of discussion, the essay would have received a lower score.
Below is an an essay about excerpt from the essay that illustrates an how to instance of the author fulfilling this criterion: “If the river’s water quality and smell result from problems which can be cleaned, [that a river clean up will result in increased river usage] may be true… But if the quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true.” In this excerpt, the author points out an assumption of the greatest essay writers of all time, argument (that the a photo, quality and essay on cricket is waste, smell problems from the river can be dealt with) and presents the implications if the a photo essay, assumption is affirmative unwarranted (if the problems are from mineral deposits, quality and smell change might not be possible). The clear way in which the author gets to the point (if A, then B may be true…but if not A, then B may not be true) and the insight she uses in a photo essay determining why the assumption might not be true and what effect that might have all contribute to this essay achieving a 6-level score. “You don’t have to be a detective to write the essay is waste, essay, but it helps*!” * does not actually help. All you need is shoot adequate preparation. The next specific rubric item delves into the logic of the author’s writing and the organization of the essay. Rubric description : A 6 essay develops ideas cogently, organizes them logically and connects them with clear transitions. While the essay on cricket is waste, previous rubric item is concerned with the author’s ability to pick apart the logic of the argument in the prompt, this item focuses in on the author’s own writing style and her ability to logically develop and connect ideas in the Argument essay. GRE guidelines for both the Issue and Argument essay place a premium on how to shoot, clear logic and organization, both in terms of how ideas are linked within a paragraph as well as on a larger scale.
For the Argument essay, it makes sense to group your discussion of each assumption into its own separate paragraph. However, if you want to get a perfect essay score, you can’t just throw in information about the in india, assumption and how to essay, its implications willy-nilly, without a care for its organization. Instead, you must make sure that each of your points about the of all, assumption is directly followed by support for that point. This clarity of development allows the reader to how to a photo essay, follow your logic more easily, which in turn makes your essay that much more persuasive and effective. In the affirmative essay, Argument essay, organization and logic are also important when it comes to ordering the how to a photo essay, paragraphs of your essay and transitioning between ideas. Here’s an example of a transition that connects the ideas of two consecutive paragraphs: “Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to the quality of the river’s water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage.” This sentence begins the about, fourth paragraph of the essay and logically transitions to the new assumption about to be discussed (“river clean up will result in increased river usage”) by referencing the idea just discussed in the third paragraph (“residents do not use the river due to the quality of the river’s water and the smell”). A Photo Essay. The sentence structure “building upon the implication that…the author suggests that” connects the two ideas skillfully, strengthening the link between the two paragraph by framing it as a logical progression. The clear and greatest, logical way in which the author develops her points within each paragraph and the tight organizational connections between paragraphs are how the essay exemplifies this rubric item. On the other hand, a dirty river means more residents on the river trying to clean it up, so…at least there’s that? Gabriela Avram/Flickr.
Want to improve your GRE score by 7 points? We have the industry's leading GRE prep program. Built by world-class instructors with 99th percentile GRE scores, the program learns your strengths and weaknesses through machine learning data science, then customizes your prep program to you so you get the most effective prep possible. Try our 5-day full access trial for free: The third non-general item on shoot, the GRE Argument essay rubric is essay in india focused entirely on how well the author supports her points. Rubric description : A 6 essay provides compelling and thorough support for its main points.
Essentially, this rubric item is all about determining whether or not an author properly supports her ideas and their development throughout the essay. Correctly identifying assumptions and examining them in a logical and organized way is all very well and good and satisfies the first two rubric criteria, but if you don’t support your analysis with either scenarios from the argument or hypothetical scenarios that could also explain assumptions made in shoot essay the argument, you’re not going to an essay crime, get a perfect score. Here’s an how to shoot essay excerpt from the essay that demonstrates an instance of “compelling and affirmative essay, thorough support”: “Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and how to a photo, fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident’s lack of river use and the river’s current state is not effectively made. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from are single sex schools a good idea essay, one or two individuals who made numerous complaints.” The first sentence of a photo essay this excerpt lays out the are single sex schools a good essay, assumption made in the argument: the reason people don’t use the how to shoot essay, water for sport is because it’s dirty and odiferous.
The next two sentences support the author’s claim that this assumption is unfounded in two important ways: #1: The author singles out a particular way in which the argument is flawed , stating that “a concrete connection…is not effectively made” between two specific claims linked in the argument. #2: The author explains why the essay, argument is flawed by presenting relevant details, like the fact that the source of the how to shoot essay, complaints is unknown and greatest essay writers, could potentially be just a few people. The reasoning and support used by how to shoot the author in her essay are effective because the author explains clearly the ways in which they support her points. If the essay time, author had just said, “There is no clear connection between the lack of river use and the river’s polluted state because it could just be a few people complaining,” the link between the shoot essay, number of affirmative essay people complaining and why this matters for the validity of the how to shoot a photo essay, complaints would’ve been unclear and the support would be less compelling. The final rubric area for about crime the Argument essay has to do with how skillfully an how to shoot a photo essay essay is written and how well it adheres to the standards of written English. Rubric description : A 6 essay conveys ideas fluently and precisely, using effective vocabulary and sentence variety. Demonstrates superior facility with the are single sex schools a good idea, conventions of standard written English (i.e., grammar, usage and mechanics), but may have minor errors. This last group of items on the Argument essay rubric gets into shoot a photo essay, the mechanics of how well the author writes. The two ways in which this is effected are through the an essay about, precise use of language and general dearth of errors . Here’s an example of an effective use of shoot a photo language in the sample essay: “While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident’s lack of river use and the river’s current state is not effectively made.”
The precise language in this sentence successfully differentiates between the “likely” correlation that is made in the prompt and the “concrete connection” that is not made. This differentiation bolster’s the author’s point that the assumption made in the argument is unwarranted. The second part of this set of rubric items has to do with the author’s ability to write in standard English without making too many errors. This is demonstrated throughout the mostly error-free sample essay; the errors that do remain, like “afffected” in paragraph four, do not impede the reader’s understanding of what the author is trying to say. This last point is a good distillation of what all the rubric items for essay a perfect-scoring essay are trying to capture: a 6.0 GRE Argument essay is how to shoot one that is clear and precise, whether in ideas, analysis, support, development, organization, or language . The river’s “CURRENT” state, get it? See, it’s funny because it’s also a river, so it has its own current, so…you know what, I’ll just see myself out. Karyn Christner/Flickr. 6 Steps to a 6.0: GRE Argument Essay Tips. To finish up this discussion of the essay rubric, I’ll go over the six GRE Argument essay tips you need to ensure a high score. One of the core skills you must master in order to score at all well on the GRE Argument essay is being able to analyze the structure and logic of the arguments , rather than getting caught up in whether you agree or disagree with the points being made. It may be difficult to do this at first, as it can be hard to be objective when the subject being argued about is one you have firm opinions on or when the affirmative, logical flaws of the argument are so obvious it drives you crazy.
Part of how to shoot practicing and preparing for are single essay the GRE Argument essay task, though, is learning how to channel that irritation and outrage into how to, an unflinching analysis and explanation of how the argument works and an essay, where it falls apart. Focus on the task at hand. In this case, the task is a swan, staring at you with its cold, swan-y eyes. Essay. Beware. Making sure you analyze the argument (rather than agreeing or disagreeing with its position) is only the first step to writing a successful GRE Argument essay, though. Essay. You’ll also need to shoot, make sure that in your dissection of the argument, your main focus stays on the major features of the essay on migration, argument that add (or detract from) the argument’s effectiveness. With only 30 minutes to complete the argument task, your job is shoot not to be comprehensive, but to analyze the points that matter. Just because you can identify every single thing wrong with the are single a good essay, argument doesn’t mean that you should do this in how to your essay.
In fact, if you end up trying to identify every single possible flaw in the argument’s reasoning, you’ll likely end up running out of time to do any analysis whatsoever. And while finding the flaws in the argument is an important part of the GRE Argument essay, an an essay equally important part is explaining in a coherent and unified way why the how to a photo, flaws matter. Let’s consider the Mason City riverfront prompt again as an example. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and are single a good idea, the city park department devotes little of how to shoot its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. Essay On Cricket. For years there have been complaints from residents about the shoot a photo essay, quality of the river’s water and the river’s smell. Are Single Sex Schools Essay. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the river for water sports is therefore sure to increase.
The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year’s budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the how to a photo essay, stated and/or unstated assumptions of the about crime, argument. Be sure to how to shoot a photo essay, explain how the essay, argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. There’s a lot of how to shoot essay information in the prompt to essay on migration, mull over, and it can be tempting to leap into how to, analyzing the first problematic assumption you notice, even if isn’t a major issue. Don’t fall prey to this temptation! It may be true that the prompt assumes that water sports can only be perpetrated on a river (rather than in a pool or the ocean), but the an essay about crime, argument depends on this fact far less than it does on the assumption that the river’s bad smell and quality is how to shoot a photo why Mason City residents rarely use the crime, Mason River for water sports.
The importance of keeping your analysis to major points is supported by the ideas and analysis rubric item: a 4-scoring essay “may also discuss some extraneous points”, while a 6-scoring essay only covers “aspects of the argument relevant to the assigned task.” Boating in shoot a photo a pool is affirmative essay totally possible. How To Essay. These guys get it. Baltimore RecNParks/Flickr. Because the GRE Argument essay involves critiquing someone else’s argument, rather than building your own, it may be difficult to see at first how you can keep your essay organized. In India. In this case, as with many other types of essay, the five-paragraph essay form is your friend.
To start your essay, you will need to how to essay, introduce the bare bones of what the on cricket is waste of time, argument is arguing. For the sample argument we went through above, those bare bones are that the Mason City government should spend more money this year on riverside recreational facilities. You must also include at least a general description of the thrust of your analysis (whether or not the argument is supported, if there are holes in the argument, or if the argument is more true than not). How To Shoot A Photo. Ideally, these two points will connect to each other in a lean fashion, like in the introduction of this sample essay: Want to improve your GRE score by 7+ points? Check out our best-in-class online GRE prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your GRE score by 7 points or more.
PrepScholar GRE is entirely online, and it customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses. We also feature thousands of practice questions, 2 official GRE practice tests, and affirmative essay, 1-on-1 scoring and feedback on your AWA essays. Check out our 5-day free trial now: While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author’s argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. A Photo. It is easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to lead to essay on cricket of time, increased funding. In each of the three body paragraphs of your essay, you should discuss the three major components of the essay, argument that go to prove your point. Because of the way the GRE Argument prompts are structured, there are usually three main assumptions propping up each argument, which makes your analysis fit quite snugly into the five paragraph form. If you only end up discussing two major questions or assumptions from the argument, it’s perfectly fine to end up with two body paragraphs, but you should keep in mind that if you have time, there might be a third avenue of the argument that’s worth exploring.
Finally, conclude your essay with a reference to your introduction and incorporation of is waste some of the points you made. This conclusion can be short, depending on how you’re doing for time and brainpower by the time you get to it, but including at shoot, least some sort of conclusion statement is an essay important part of keeping your essay organized. Planning out your essay into five-paragraph form before you start writing can also help you stay organized. #4: Do Mock Analyses of Real GRE Essay Prompts. There are 176 possible topics you’ll be asked to shoot essay, write about on the GRE Argument essay, and all of them are available for free online. Because of essay this wealth of essay real essay topics, it’s unlikely that you’ll run out of prompts you can write practice essays on (unless you’re planning on spending 88 hours doing practice GRE Argument essays). Therefore, it’s safe to do practice outlines , rather than entire practice essays, for a portion of these prompts.
Writing mock Argument essay outlines is good practice if you’re fine with explaining your thoughts but are struggling with speedily analyzing arguments. Even if you have difficulty with both these aspects of the Argument task, creating outlines is are single a good essay still good practice because it will at least help you increase your analytical skills; once you’ve bolstered your ability to analyze an shoot argument under time pressure, you can then proceed to writing full-length practice essays. For each prompt you choose to outline, come up with at least three points of affirmative analysis and a few sentences to explain the importance of how to shoot a photo each point. These points of analysis could be assumptions made in the argument, the evidence that’s needed to successfully evaluate the argument, alternative explanations or arguments that could be made based on the facts presented in the task, and so on. Essay Is Waste. Make sure, however, to follow step two above and only discuss points that are central to the argument. You don’t have to play through an how to shoot a photo entire song or write an on migration in india entire essay every time you practice. A Photo Essay. Sometimes, targeted practice is a good idea just as valuable. How To A Photo Essay. Wolfgang Lonien/Flickr. The rubric is a good way to grade your own essays, but it can sometimes be hard to know how to take the abstract criteria from the scoring guidelines and essay in india, apply them to a real essay. Fortunately, in shoot essay addition to the free and publicly available sample argument essay I analyzed earlier, sample Argument essays at several different score levels are included in chapters 8 and of all time, 9 of The Official Guide to how to a photo, the GRE revised General Test (2nd Ed.) . You can maximize the value of these sample essays by not only reading them over but by essay also taking the GRE Argument essay rubric and applying it to them. Use the major differences I pointed out in the 4-vs.-6 Writing score level comparison and my analysis of the 6-scoring sample GRE Argument essay to help you identify features that make the example essays so high-scoring.
Make sure to note both what the authors do well and why what they do is shoot a photo essay effective . The official GRE reader commentary that goes along with each sample essay is also a valuable resource you should use to supplement your analysis and a photo, ensure you haven’t missed anything. You should not copy exact words or phrases from the perfect-scoring essays to use in your own work (that’s plagiarism, which is not permitted on the GRE). Instead, observe how other students successfully earned high essay scores and how to a photo essay, plan out how you can emulate them. Examine perfect-scoring essays so you know what standards your essays need to meet. The word processor you use to write the Issue and Argument essays on the GRE does not have the standard amenities of autocorrect, spell check, or grammar check, which means you’re likely to make typos and not notice it. You’re also going to be typing under time pressure, which may lead you to make more errors than usual.
Because of this, it’s imperative you check over your essay before submitting it. Having a few minor errors in your essay is fine, as long as the errors don’t make it impossible to understand what you’re trying to say. However, if there are too many typos and in affirmative mistakes in how to essay your essays, the essay graders (both human and computer) will have difficulty understanding what you’re trying to say and following your analysis, and how to shoot a photo essay, so will not be able to give you a high score. Example 1: Not revised, major errors (grammar, spelling, and punctuation) One of shoot a photo ht ecornerstones of the argument is that the fewer.
In order for this to meaningful, hwoever, reporting methods from hospital to hospital would have to are single sex schools idea essay, be equivalent, not just now, but also before from before the “recent est” was begun. wihtout having a reliable baseline it, would be imposisble to know if fhte measured reduction in patient infection gy harmful bacteria was all meaningful. Example 2: Revised, some minor errors remaining. One of the shoot a photo, cornerstones of the affirmative essay, argument is shoot essay that the hospitals reported fewer pateint infections after using UltraClean. On Migration. In order for this to how to, matter, however, reporting methods from hospital to hospital would have to be equivalent. Furthermore, the methods of reporting patient infection would have to have been equivalent before the “recent test” was begun. Without having a reliable baseline, it would be imposisble to know if fhte measured reduction in about crime patient infection by harmful bacteria was at all meaningful. Barnaby Monkey would never have gotten sick from shoot essay, a post-op infection if the hospital had used UltraClean. Now you have a better understanding of what it takes to get a perfect score on the Argument essay, but what about on the other half of Analytical Writing? Find out essay on migration in india with our exploration of what it takes to get a perfect score on the GRE Issue essay and our analyses of perfect scoring GRE essay samples.
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Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of how to a photo Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel and fulfill their college and grad school dreams. Shoot A Photo. View all posts by Laura Staffaroni. Subscribe and greatest time, get FREE tips to crush the how to shoot a photo essay, GRE! Join our Facebook GRE Study Group. Our Top 10 Most Viewed GRE Posts Ever. Grad School (28) GRE Analytical Writing (7) GRE General Info (44) GRE Logistics (26) GRE Prep (33) GRE Quantitative (12) GRE Subject Tests (1) GRE Verbal (14) TOEFL (15) © PrepScholar 2013-2017. All rights reserved. GRE ® and TOEFL ® are registered trademarks of the Educational Testing Service (ETS). The ETS does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in greatest time any way with the how to essay, owner or any content of this site. GMAT ® is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council ® (GMAC ® ). The GMAC does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in essay writers time any way with the owner or any content of how to essay this site.
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Analysis of A Valediction Forbidding Mourning by John Donne Essay. In A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, John Donne uses many metaphors and images to convince his lover that even though they are going to be apart, their love will remain untainted. The prefix un- meaning to do the opposite of or is how to a photo essay, also used to reverse the meaning of a word. The definition of tainted is to be contaminated or to be touched or affected slightly with something bad. In short, untainted means to remain the same without being corrupted by outside influences. The author uses references to spheres and circles, which depict something that ends where it begins, to support his defense. Are Single A Good Essay. Donne also uses many references to nature, as he does in many of his poems show more content The narrator goes on to describe their love as Dull sublunary lovers' love, in the forth quatrain (13). Sublunary meaning everything below the moon or earthly, something that is how to shoot, subject to sex schools a good, change and is definitely something far from how to a photo essay perfect (13). This idea of their love being flawed does not seem to on migration in india, go along with the theme in the poem.
The theme of the poem is very reassuring of their love's security. It is almost as if the narrator is trying to show his lover that he realizes their relationship is perishable. Donne goes on to explain how even thought their love is how to a photo, going to change, in the physical sense, their souls will still be together (14). Their love consists of three parts: body, soul, and mind, not just body. He states that they have a love so much refined, no distance could change their bond as one (17). In quatrain six, Donne uses words that reflect those used in marriage ceremonies in which two become one, so the essay is waste two souls of the lovers are joined together (21). The narrator explains to his love that there is not A breach, but an expansion, in how to a photo essay, their relationship (23).
The author tells his lover not to worry while he is gone, but acknowledges the fact that this expansion is stretching their love A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning by how to a photo, John Donne Essay. The power of these two forces is a photo, such that it is useless to cry and weep, because if true it they are stronger than any divide could be. Donne seems to suggest that the about experience in separating for those who are of a “refined love” is a photo essay, a positive one. Is Waste. Although we commonly associate separation with sorrow and despair, he seems to associate it with strength and greatness. In this separation their love is expanded, it grows and travels around the globe with them. He implies this experience of Love in how to a photo, HJohn Donne?s A Valediction Forbidding Mourning and Andrew Marvell?s To His Coy Mistress. regards to the differential between personalities and the world you of the author in question. An Essay About. Accordingly, the following analysis will be concentric upon discussing and analyzing the approach and a photo essay, understanding of on cricket of time, love that two specific poets exhibit within their respective work. The first of these poets that will be analyzed is John Donne in his poem “A valediction forbidding Mourning”. Shoot Essay. Likewise, the on cricket is waste of time second which will be analyzed is Andrew Marvell’s “To His Coy Mistress”. Even though these two points Experiencing the True Love of John Donne’s “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning” Donne elaborates upon essay, this idea in the fourth stanza as he states that the ordinary people’s “soul is sense” (line 14). Are Single A Good. By comparing their souls with the senses, Donne describes the imperfections of a love based on how to a photo, physical attraction only.
This metaphor takes the idea of soul into affirmative a physical sphere and, by doing so, illustrates what the author’s love is not. Donne asserts that their love is how to shoot essay, different because it is transcendental and deeper than sensations. Moreover, in essay time, line 23 the poet states that Love in John Donne#x27;s A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning and Andrew Marvell#x27;s To His Coy Mistress. he was not a Puritan himself, he supported the Puritan's cause during the civil war (1142). His Puritan belief may not have influenced his poem. He wrote the poem when he was 60 years of shoot, age, same age Donne wrote his A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning. Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning in terms of structure has a sense of affirmative, continuity, which resembles a circle. The poem consists of nine stanzas of four lines or quatrains. Every second line of the poem is indented as if it's a weave of
Essay on Interpretation of A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning. viewed by many ,because they don't know what it is, to have no apparent meaning. However, in order to understand the true meaning of this third quatrain of the poem, it is how to shoot, necessary to consider the Ptolemaic Universe and the symbolism Donne used by the sphere. How To Shoot A Photo. Donne was a very well-educated man who studied famous thinkers such as Aristotle and Ptolemy, and their views of the universe. During the Middle Ages and the Elizabethan Age, philosophers views of the circle and sphere were looked upon by many Andrew Marvell#x27;s To His Coy Mistress and essay, John Donne#x27;s A Valedictorian: Forbidding Mourning. desperate. After grimly describing the are single idea essay reality of death, the speaker attempts to, once again, conceal his true emotions with the use of how to shoot essay, flattery. Unlike the poem To His Coy Mistress where love only refers to outward appearance, in A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning the speaker also recognizes the spiritual and emotional aspects of love. The speaker seems much more reasonable and understandable with respect to the meaning of love.
Although melancholic, the tone in the first three stanzas shows the Analysis of the essay on cricket Poem, The Flea by John Donne Essay. the blood of the flea he and her are already married. If the girl were to kill the flea, he feels that it would be the equivalent of murdering all three of them. The speaker is desperately trying to manipulate the girls actions too his advantage. Donne uses more metaphors too twist his words into a more convincing argument. Even after the girl kills the flea by “purpling thy naile”, the speaker asks the girl how she could have found the flea guilty besides that he sucked her blood. He then Critical Analysis of The Indifferent by how to shoot a photo, John Donne Essay. the first stanza, and continues throughout the entire poem. The speaker desires a solely sexual relationship with his women, and he believes that such a relationship cannot exist if they are truthful to one another. Shoot. According to Eleanor McNees, Donne realizes that erotic license is irreconcilable with norms of shoot a photo, truth and troth (207). Over the essay writers of all first stanza, the speed of the rhythm also increases with the importance.
There is a rhythmic progression from the even, steady movement and moderate Essay on An Explication of shoot a photo essay, “a Valediction: Forbidden Mourning” 30) always returns to the starting point and essay on migration, he should do the same. In the last stanza, the speaker explains that it is the strength of the love of essay, his lady that will make him come back home, where he begun, and they’ll reunite. In conclusion, John Donne uses similes and metaphors to crime, describe the profound relationship between the two lovers in his poem. He relates through similes that the shoot a photo speakers love is beyond a normal love. He states that their relationship can grow in absence. And, finally, When there marriage was discovered Donne was thrown into how to shoot essay prison by Anne’s father along with several other of Donne’s friends who were involved. John Donne lost his job and for the next few years struggled to provide for his family through his writing of poetry and practising some law and ‘tutoring’ rich women.
It was not until 1609 that Donne was reconciled with his farther-in-law who then provided John and Ann with a dowry. Later on shoot a photo essay, his life Ann died in labour of his thirteenth son.
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essay japan A Case Study of how to shoot, Tokugawa Japan through Art: Views of a Society in Transformation. Tokugawa Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Marcia Yonemoto, University of Colorado at Boulder. Sir George Sansom’s history of essay of time, Japan was first published in how to a photo essay, 1932 and used in U.S. college classrooms into the 1980s. In it, he described the Tokugawa period (1603-1868) as an era of an essay crime, oppressive “feudal” rule. In this view, hierarchical divisions between samurai, peasant, artisan, and merchant were strictly maintained. Sansom described a system in which swaggering samurai used their swords to cut down commoners. Miserable peasants barely eked out a living, and urban merchants were scorned as unethical profiteers.
According to how to a photo Sansom, change was loathed. The government kept the rest of the world out, denying “themselves all the gifts which the West then had to how to shoot essay offer.” This move, said Sansom, “arrested the cultural development of Japan” (Sansom 1932, 455, 457). Scholars today largely dismiss this view. Yet it remains pervasive. Films and manga comics glorify samurai bravado. But they ignore much else about the period. Thus, even the well-informed often are surprised when they read more recent histories of the period. Such newer works describe the political system as a rational “integral bureaucracy.” This system was “not merely a samurai institution.” Rather, it depended on non-elite “commercial agents and activities” (Totman 1981, p. 133). Newer histories call the era “a time of extraordinary social growth and change. Shoot Essay. In terms of population and production, urbanization and how to shoot a photo commercialization, and societal sophistication and elaboration, the how to shoot, century was one of unparalleled development.”
What should readers make of these discrepancies? What do teachers and an essay students really need to know about the Tokugawa period? This brief essay addresses these questions by how to shoot a photo essay, (1) sketching the outline of on cricket is waste, Tokugawa history, touching on politics, economics, society, and culture; (2) introducing some historical debates regarding the Tokugawa period; and (3) giving references for further reading on important topics. The Tokugawa Political Settlement. The first Tokugawa shogun was Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616). How To Shoot A Photo. He came of age in greatest essay writers of all, an era of violence and conflict.
During the Warring States period (c.1467-1590), centralized political authoritythe imperial court and the military government (shogunate, or bakufu )had lost its effectiveness. Practical political power had passed into the hands of approximately 200 local warlords, or daimy#333; . The daimy#333; controlled their own territories. These territories were called domains. By the end of the period, some daimy#333; had become extremely powerful. Each commanded large swaths of territory and how to shoot a photo tens of thousands of warriors. One such leader was Oda Nobunaga (1534-82).
Nobunaga was a daimy#333; from the about, province of Owari in central Honshu. Using strategic alliances and brutal military tactics, Nobunaga brought about a photo essay, one-third of the country under his control. A Photo Essay. When he was assassinated in how to shoot, 1582, his most able general, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-98), took his place. Hideyoshi was a brilliant military and essay political tactician. How To Shoot A Photo. His talent and ambition had allowed him to rise from in india a humble peasant background. Building on Nobunaga’s achievements, Hideyoshi brought all of Japan under his control by about 1590. Two problems marked Hideyoshi’s later years. One was his growing belief that his power was unlimited. This megalomania was reflected in how to shoot a photo essay, unsuccessful attempts to invade Korea and China. The second problem was his difficulty in producing an heir.
At his death in 1597, he had only one infant son. He entrusted his son’s fate to five trusted allies. Each swore to protect the heir and help ensure the Toyotomi clan’s future. Among these allies was Tokugawa Ieyasu. Ieyasu controlled significant territory in northeastern Honshu. Ieyasu’s castle headquarters was located in the city of Edo (now Tokyo).
Hideyoshi had been dead scarcely three years when Ieyasu turned on his former lord. In 1600, his forces defeated the Toyotomi. In 1603, Ieyasu established a new shogunate in his family’s name. He went to war once again in 1615 to completely wipe out the Toyotomi and their allies. Affirmative. From then on, the Tokugawa maintained political authority for 253 years without resorting to military combat. The primary political goal of Tokugawa Ieyasu and his heirshis son, Hidetada (1578-1632) and grandson, Iemitsu (1604-1651)was to cut off the roots of potential dissent and rebellion. In the late 1630s, Tokugawa Iemitsu expelled Portuguese and Spanish Catholic missionaries and traders. How To A Photo Essay. This decision was motivated more by the political threat posed by converts, especially daimy#333; converts, than by dislike of affirmative essay, Christian doctrine or the foreign presence in Japan. How To Shoot A Photo Essay. The early shoguns were wary of other daimy#333; . Many of these daimy#333; were recent allies who were not totally committed to Tokugawa rule.
The Tokugawa shoguns built on the ideas and tactics of are single idea essay, Nobunaga and Hideyoshi. They developed a form of political rule that was authoritarian but not dictatorial. This can be seen in a photo, the way the early shoguns distributed land to their daimy#333; allies. The Tokugawa kept only about about a quarter of the land available for redistribution for themselves. Of the how to shoot, remaining lands, the shogunate allocated about 10 percent to blood relations (known as the collateral, or shinpan daimy#333; houses).
Another 26 percent went to longtime loyal allies, the fudai daimy#333; . The remaining 38 percent went to the most recent, less stable allies. These allies were the “outside,” or tozama daimy#333; . The early Tokugawa shoguns’ use of land distribution to affirmative essay both win the allegiance and encourage the how to shoot essay, dependence of daimy#333; illustrates the blend of resourcefulness, pragmatism, and foresight characteristic of sex schools idea essay, Tokugawa political rule. In its policies, the a photo essay, shogunate was careful to balance demands on daimy#333; with privileges granted to them. For example, the essay on migration in india, shogunate never directly taxed the daimy#333; . Instead, it exercised indirect levies such as requiring daimy#333; to supply labor and raw materials for the construction and a photo maintenance of castles, roads, post stations, and in india the like. The shogunate also forced all daimy#333; to how to shoot essay commute between their home domains and the shogunal capital of Edo, a time- and resource-consuming practice. The shogunate exercised authority by compelling the wives and sex schools a good idea essay children of all daimy#333; to reside permanently in Edo. There, they were under the shogun’s watchful eye. Daimy#333; were also required to secure shogunal approval before marrying. At the same time, daimy#333; were for the most part free to govern their domains as they saw fit.
They issued their own law codes and administered justice. How To Shoot. Some printed and circulated their own currency. The shogunate intervened only on migration if requested to do so. In these ways, the how to shoot essay, Tokugawa governing system balanced authority and sex schools idea autonomy. Economic Growth and Social Change. Studying the Tokugawa era reveals many seeming contradictions. Of these, perhaps none is more striking than the contrast between the Tokugawa rulers’ vision of the ideal economic system and the reality of economic growth and change. With a few notable exceptions, the shogunate and daimy#333; viewed the economy in simple agronomist terms. In this view, the peasant’s role was to produce basic foodstuffs. Peasants were to give a good portion of their products in tax to support the how to shoot a photo essay, ruling classes.
Artisans used their skills to craft necessary non-food items. Finally, goods that could not be acquired through any other means could be purchased from merchants. Merchants were deemed the necessary evil of the economic system. In fact, however, the early Tokugawa period (until about the mid-eighteenth century) saw rapid and sustained economic growth. This growth occurred first in the agricultural sector.
But growth also occurred through merchant-driven trade and market activity. The concentration of population in cities served as a major impetus for affirmative, growth and change. Yet many Tokugawa authorities clung to shoot a photo essay their old notions of a static, agrarian-based economy. The samurai class, who were forbidden from engaging in profitable trade or farming, were disadvantaged by Tokugawa policies and attitudes toward the sex schools a good, economy. Shoot A Photo Essay. The ruling class was prevented from taking advantage of economic growth.
At the sex schools idea essay, same time, substantial benefits went to merchants and even to market-savvy peasants. Economic growth thus contributed to the inversion of the status hierarchy enshrined in how to shoot, the “four class system.” An increasingly wealthy, educated, and powerful commoner population was created. Meanwhile, samurai, especially those of low rank, steadily became economically weaker. Growth in Agricultural Production and Population. Essay. During the Warring States period, agricultural production grew. How To. Production increased by about 70 percent overall between 1450 and sex schools a good idea 1600.
Growth continued into the early Tokugawa period. Tokugawa policies that promoted land reclamation and land clearance supported increased production. In addition, the disarming of peasants and local religious communities that came with the “Tokugawa peace” put more people back on the land. The net result was a 140 percent increase in land under cultivation between the years 1600 and 1720. How To Shoot A Photo. Peasants not only farmed more land, they also increased the intensity with which they worked it. Through careful monitoring and of all time the spread of information about cropping patterns, fertilizers, and the like, Japanese peasants in the Tokugawa period continued to increase their land’s productivity. The overall growth in how to a photo, agricultural productivity caused a rise in the general well-being of the people. This trend can be seen in the significant rise in population during the seventeenth century. Are Single Sex Schools Idea. Although scholars argue over shoot a photo essay exact figures, Japan’s total population around the year 1600 was most likely 12 to 18 million.
The population at the time of the first reliable national census taken by an essay crime, the shogunate in 1720 was around 31 million. These data indicate that the population more than doubled in a little over shoot 100 years. For a number of reasons, including family planning and an essay about voluntary limitation of family size among the peasantry, population growth leveled off in the eighteenth century. Japan’s population grew at a negligible rate between the early eighteenth and late nineteenth centuries. The economy, however, continued to grow, leading to an economic surplus.
That surplus was a key factor in Japan’s rapid industrialization in how to shoot, the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Growth in sex schools, Markets and Trade. Increased agricultural production and population growth provided the base for subsequent growth in trade. A Photo Essay. Increases in trade were also enabled by such developments as the creation of reliable and effective transportation networks. The road system in on migration, particular was expanded and improved under Tokugawa rule.
Shipping networks on sea routes were also expanded, especially those linking the major commercial centers in how to a photo essay, western and eastern Japan. Along with growth in trade came growth in of all, the use of money. How To. Tokugawa Ieyasu and his immediate successors worked to systematize the minting and use of coinage and to standardize currency. Idea. In turn, this greatly facilitated domestic trade. How To Shoot A Photo Essay. These factors comprised the building blocks for a well-developed local and national economy. Regional and domainal capitals were linked by an essay about, good roads. Smaller market towns and settlements grew along these roads. Local areas developed specialty goods and products. These goods were shipped to and through Japan’s growing cities in an increasingly integrated national economy.
Growth of Cities. How To. During the Warring States period, local lords began to an essay gather their warriors around them in headquarters centered on fortified castles. This tendency was formalized by Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, who demanded that their retainers live in the capital cities rather than in their domains. As a result, so-called castle towns ( j#333;kamachi ) sprung up in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Some 90 new towns appeared between 1572 and 1590 alone. The number continued to grow in subsequent decades.
The emergence of castle towns and later of how to a photo, cities had a significant economic impact. Building cities required assembling, equipping, feeding, housing, and supervising huge numbers of affirmative, laborers and technical specialists. It also required importing vast amounts of resources: soil, stone, lumber, thatch, kilns for baking roof tiles, charcoal, and the like. From the shoot a photo, late sixteenth century on, these labor forces came to number in the tens of thousands. As a result, as castle towns grew, laborers and service personnel settled in writers of all, and around towns. Samurai settled near the castles of their lords. The commoners who served the samurai moved into adjacent areas. Over time castle towns evolved into urban areas.
Development of the city of how to shoot a photo essay, Edo is a prime example of the urbanization process. When Ieyasu made it his capital in 1590, Edo was a swampy backwater of a few hundred residents. Out of this unpromising location, Ieyasu built a magnificent shogunal capital. Laborers cut down forests, leveled hills to fill in on cricket of time, wetlands, rerouted rivers, and how to shoot essay dredged creeks and canals. They built bridges and sex schools idea walls, erected shrines and temples, and constructed buildings. Among the buildings erected were opulent daimy#333; mansions and the magnificent castle of the shogun. Warehouses, storefronts, and common dwellings were also built. By 1600, Edo was a town of some 5000 dwellings. By 1610, it was reportedly a clean, well-organized city of about 150,000 people.
As samurai retainers of the shogun and of daimy#333; flooded into the city in shoot a photo, the early seventeenth century, the population zoomed upward. By 1657, Edo had about 500,000 residents. By 1720, it was the world’s largest city outside of greatest of all time, China, with a population of about 1.4 million. A Photo Essay. Half a million of these residents were samurai. Edo was the shogunal capital, so its population was exceptionally large. But smaller, regional castle towns also grew significantly. Kanazawa, headquarters of an essay extensive domain on the Japan Sea coast, was a town of 5,000 in 1580. It grew to 120,000 in 1710.
Nagoya, a small town in the early seventeenth century, had become a regional center of 64,000 residents by 1692. Shoot A Photo Essay. Osaka, always a major city, grew from 200,000 people in 1610 to essay 360,000 by 1700. It hit a peak of half a million by the late eighteenth century. Growth was good for the economy in shoot essay, general. It affected different classes differently, however. In particular, merchants benefited from the increase in trade, markets, and essay is waste urbanization. Samurai suffered from those same phenomena. Why did the samurai lose out? First, samurai were paid in fixed stipends, disbursed in how to a photo, rice. These stipends were based on an individual’s rank and office and did not increase at a pace equal to the rise in prices. Second, with the growth of the market and monetization of the economy, samurai had to trade their rice stipends for cash.
This process was controlled by affirmative, merchants in Edo and Osaka. It put samurai at the mercy of both the unstable market price for rice and the greed of essay, merchant moneychangers. Finally, samurai were forbidden by law from engaging in farming or commerce, which might have afforded them some economic relief. All of these factors made it almost impossible for samurai to greatest essay writers of all benefit from the growth occurring in the economy. As samurai became increasingly impoverished, they began to borrow on future stipends to meet present needs. Thus they put themselves in debt to merchant lenders. Having samurai at their mercy not only earned the merchants a measure of profit, it also gave them significant symbolic leverage over their samurai superiors. For the samurai, being indebted to lowly merchants was extremely galling. How To A Photo. Many low-ranking samurai whose stipends gave them barely enough to get by felt they had to scrimp and save while merchants prospered.
Matters were made worse by essay on migration in india, the fact that samurai had to keep up appearances. Protocol deemed that they dress properly, live in good style, and how to shoot a photo engage in the social activities (which involved expensive gift-giving) that were required of them, but were increasingly beyond their economic means. Tokugawa authorities were aware of the problems facing samurai. They repeatedly tried to shore up the political and moral order by an essay about, elaborating on the unique role of samurai as moral exemplars and shoot essay scholar/administrators. By definition, commoners could not fulfill those roles. Through the Ky#333;h#333; Reforms of the early eighteenth century and the Kansei Reforms at the turn of the nineteenth century, the shogunate enacted measures aimed at stabilizing and strengthening the economic and political status of the on migration in india, samurai. But the authorities’ reassertion of proper political order could not change reality. Neither shogun nor daimy#333; could offer much practical help to financially strapped samurai.
More broad-minded thinkers such as the philosopher Ogy#363; Sorai (1666-1728) proposed radical reforms. One such reform was returning the samurai to a photo essay the land so they could farm. Another was overhauling the office and rank system so that lower-ranking “men of talent” could rise to positions of power. These men often languished in idleness while less deserving sons of high-ranking families inherited their fathers’ positions. In the end, economic growth in the Tokugawa period favored commoners over the elite.
The Emergence of Commoner Culture. While they were not shy about commenting wryly on the state of society, urban commoners were not political activists. Peasant protests did break out in the eighteenth century, largely due to authorities’ failure to provide relief during times of crop failure and food shortage. But the an essay about, new urban bourgeoisie did not attempt to overthrow the warrior government. Rather, urban commoners tended to turn away from the troublesome world of politics. They used their newfound wealth to fashion a new style of shoot a photo essay, life and art. While the new style borrowed aspects of elite “high” culture, it was in are single sex schools a good idea, many ways utterly new to the early modern urban scene. By the a photo essay, Genroku period (1688-1703), one could see in Edo and other cities a flourishing merchant class that was developing a cultural style all its own. On Cricket. Merchants flaunted their wealth, building enormous houses and dressing in finery that exceeded that of samurai. The shogunate was not at all happy about this. It repeatedly issued laws forbidding merchants to wear fine silk clothes and restricting the construction of large and showy homes in merchant quarters.
However, such laws were difficult to enforce. Various sources show repeated examples of merchants’ conspicuous consumption. By the mid-eighteenth century, popular representations abounded of the poor samurai pawning the clothes and swords off his back for a little extra cash. Then a merchant redeemed them and how to shoot a photo paraded around the city in the purchased finery. Such sights enraged samurai. Greatest Essay. Yet they had to suppress their anger and keep up the façade of essay, reserve and prosperity appropriate to their status. As a popular saying of the time went, “if a samurai is starving, he uses a toothpick all the same.” Despite their economic plight (or perhaps to gain relief from the misery of it), samurai frequented the entertainment areas originally created by and for merchants. These areas consisted of theaters, teahouses and restaurants, brothels, and street entertainersfortune-tellers, jugglers, and story-tellers. Brothels were a new feature in the cultural life of cities. Prostitution had a long history in Japan.
Not until the Tokugawa period did the government seek to control it through licensing and surveillance. Legal brothel activity was confined by the government to certain geographic areas in most of Japan’s cities. These areas were referred to as the licensed quarters. Of course, there was also much illegal prostitution in cities. The shogunate could scarcely control it, much less eradicate it. The high-ranking courtesans ( y#363jo ) of the essay on migration in india, Yoshiwara were not common prostitutes.
Apprenticed as young girls, they trained intensively in various arts, most notably music, dance, and singing. They were ranked according to their level of training and experience, much like the geisha that still exist today. The most famous courtesans were respected as artists and professionals. They were also made famous through their depiction in plays, fiction, and the visual arts. Indeed, many became movie-star-like trendsetters. Men wanting to meet with a high-ranking courtesan had to go through an elaborate and expensive process of courting her before he could even lay eyes on her. Technically, the how to a photo essay, pleasure quarters were enclaves for how to shoot a photo essay, commoners.
Samurai were banned on the grounds that they were supposed to be upright, moral, and frugal characters with no time for crass indulgences. In spite of the warnings to how to a photo stay away, samurai were frequent clients in the pleasure quarters. They attempted to disguise their identities by removing their swords and hiding their faces behind large straw hats. The themes of honor and sacrifice inherent in such highly dramatic stories made commoners feel their culture had something in common with that of the affirmative essay, elites. Yet there is a distinct commoner twist to these ideas. How To A Photo. This twist both honors and degrades the great samurai tradition of self-sacrifice. Actual incidents of love suicide seem to greatest writers of all have proliferated in the late 1600s, perhaps becoming even more common in the 1700s. They became a cultural fad encouraged by the romanticization of the act on shoot, stage. In 1722, the shogunate forbade the treatment of shinj#363 on stage, seeing it as an offense against proper family order. The phenomenon of love suicideboth actual and stagedbrings to the fore the issue of cultural fads and their spread: How, exactly, did ideas circulate?
Literacy, Education, and the “Library of Public Information” Assessing popular literacy before the advent of modern universal education is difficult. Historians use many techniques to estimate the nature and level of literacy in pre- and early-modern societies. Still, their findings are often tentative. Among the most common techniques is analyzing signatures on official documents (wills, marriage records, etc.) as a measure of people’s ability to write. On Migration. Other techniques include studying educational infrastructures and determining school attendance rates. Historians also look at data on cultural phenomena such as publishing and circulation of books and other printed matter. In Tokugawa Japan, as in many parts of the early modern world, literacy varied widely.
Variations occurred by class and occupation, by geographic region, and, to some extent, by gender. The ruling elites, Buddhist and Shinto clergy, and commoner intellectuals on the fringes of the elite (Confucian scholars, doctors, and minor officials) tended to how to shoot essay be quite learned. Essay. They possessed considerable knowledge of Japanese and Sino-Japanese (or kanbun , the style of writing derived from classical Chinese, which was used in formal discourse). They also knew the classical works of how to a photo essay, both the Japanese and greatest writers of all time Chinese literary and philosophical traditions. By the end of the seventeenth century, literacy and learning were beginning to spread more widely. Rural village headmen and well-to-do urban townsmen and women were becoming literate and, as time went on, impressively learned.
These people became the primary consumers of a photo essay, popular literature and of the arts. The infrastructure for popular education developed considerably in the Tokugawa period. Learning moved out of the religious establishments and private academies and into much more accessible venues. Crime. In these venues, commoner children were able to gain basic functional literacy and often much more. The demand for books was thus extremely high. Publishers in the major cities churned out texts of all sorts.
While Buddhist and Confucian texts remained the mainstays of highbrow publishing, many more publishers produced for the general reading audience. Illustrated fiction and poetry were popular. So were nonfiction manuals, primers, encyclopedias, travel guides, almanacs, and maps. As printed materials circulated among ever-greater numbers of readers, they conditioned in people certain patterns of thought and ultimately of behavior. As one scholar has put it, there emerged in Tokugawa Japan a broad-based and widely read “library of public information,” which produced commonly held forms of social knowledge (Berry 2006, 13, 17). When faced with the question of precisely what percentages of what sorts of how to a photo essay, people were literate, historians do not give a precise answer. The data simply is not conclusive. The best we can do is point to greatest essay writers time figures that may serve as broad indicators of the dimensions of how to essay, literacy.
Among samurai, who made up 6 to 7 percent of the essay, population, literacy was almost universal and generally of a very high level. The degree of how to shoot a photo, learning varied, however, according to rank, office, and wealth. There are accounts of illiterate samurai, especially later in an essay about crime, the Tokugawa period. These cases occurred among the lowest, most impoverished ranks. How To Shoot A Photo Essay. Though it is unclear how prevalent samurai illiteracy was, it was probably rare. It was certainly the source of great shame for the unlettered individual and his family. High literacy is common in an elite ruling class.
As we have noted, however, commoners in the Tokugawa period practiced considerable self-governance. The Tokugawa state was very bureaucratic. Its officials, samurai and commoner alike, were required to keep detailed records. They also had to write a great deal of correspondence. Official duties thus demanded high levels of essay is waste of time, literacy not only among samurai, but also among the essay, upper strata of urban and rural commoner populations who held such responsible positions as city ward official or village headman. Shoot A Photo Essay. Recent research indicates that, by how to shoot, the end of the seventeenth century, the rural elitenumbering some 200-300,000 out of a total population of around 30 million, or less than 0.1 percent of the are single a good essay, populationpossessed “extraordinarily high literacy and numeracy” in order to fulfill their many administrative duties (Rubinger 2007, 30). Below the rural elite were the landowning farmers. Their numbers varied over time and by region.
They probably comprised about 50 percent of the overall farming population. The farming population constituted about 90 percent of the total population. Most landowning farmersagain, roughly half of the totallikely possessed “high functional literacy.” They could read and understand tax accounts computed by how to a photo, village officials. They could file grievances and petitions to authorities when necessary. Literacy among urban commoners, who were fewer in number than their rural counterparts, was almost certainly higher. Educational opportunities were more accessible and educational texts more available to urban-dwellers. Literacy among urban commoner women in particular probably far outstripped that of rural women. Literacy and education were by no means monopolized by the elite in essay of time, Tokugawa Japan. Common knowledge and common culture spread widely among the common people. This widening of the knowledge base greatly facilitated the how to, subsequent development of the modern industrial nation-state. The Discontented and the End of an Era.
In other times and places, learning among the common people has been a recipe for dissent. Eventually, learning among commoners has led to the overthrow of aristocratic governments. This was not true in essay, Tokugawa Japan. How To A Photo. Unrest did occur. Peasant protest in particular was widespread and sometimes intense in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Ultimately, however, those responsible for overthrow of the Tokugawa regime were members of the ruling class itself: the samurai.
This kind of “aristocratic revolution” is how to a photo, unusual in world history. Samurai grievances were compounded by the events of the early decades of the a photo, nineteenth century. Bad crop harvests in the 1830s resulted in widespread famine, disease, and death. The problems were especially acute in the poor northeastern part of the country. Affirmative. When officials failed to provide adequate relief, peasant protests skyrocketed in number and severity. At the how to essay, same time, Japanese leaders watched nervously as the essay of time, great Qing empire in China was decimated by the British in a photo, the first Opium Wars of 1839-1842. Essay. China was thereafter “carved up like a melon” by the other Western powers.
The Japanese had already fended off advances by the Russians in the 1790s and early 1800s and by shoot essay, the British in the 1820s. How To Essay. By the 1840s, it seemed likely that the Americans would try their hand at “opening” Japan. In 1853, a U.S. naval delegation led by Commodore Matthew C. Perry arrived with demands from a photo U.S. President Millard Fillmore. Fillmore demanded that Japan agree to trade and diplomatic relations with the United States. The shogun was given a half-year to crime consider Perry’s request. Observers, especially powerful daimy#333; , saw that the shogunate had no new ideas about how to handle the how to shoot, foreign threat, much less the domestic problems wracking the country.
In the end, shogunal officials agreed, in spite of the emperor’s disapproval, to sign trade and diplomatic treaties with the United States. As in China, the terms gave great advantages to the Western powers. Japan was relegated to semi-colonial status. For pro-imperial, anti-shogunal forces, the foreign crises, in particular the signing of the treaty with the how to shoot essay, United States, were the last straw. Plans to overthrow the Tokugawa regime began in shoot essay, earnest in an essay, the 1860s. Radical samurai staged direct attacks on foreigners in Japan, resulting in several international incidents. How To A Photo. The most serious of these incidents sparked the bombardment of domains in Satsuma and Ch#333;sh#363 by Western naval forces.
Finally, in January 1868, combined military forces of the domains of Satsuma and a good essay Ch#333;sh#363 marched into a photo essay Kyoto, took control of the imperial palace, and proclaimed the restoration of the a good, emperor and the abolition of the Tokugawa shogunate. Court nobles and daimy#333; would form a new government in how to a photo essay, place of the old. Although its exact structure was unclear in early 1868, the restoration was a clear denunciation of Tokugawa rule. The last shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu (or Keiki), retreated to about crime Edo. He held out for another few months before officially resigning in April 1868. Remnants of pro-shogunal forces staged a resistance until later that year. They were ultimately defeated. Although the Tokugawa regime ended in 1868, it bequeathed a deep and rich political, economic, and cultural legacy to modern Japan. One cannot properly understand Japan’s modern history without understanding its Tokugawa past. Indeed, the story of how Japan became modern begins not in how to shoot essay, 1868, but in 1603. Berry, Mary Elizabeth, Japan in Print: Information and Nation in the Early Modern Period (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006).
Rubinger, Richard, Popular Literacy in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2007). Sansom, G.B., Japan: A Short Cultural History (New York: Century, 1932). Totman, Conrad, Japan Before Perry: A Short History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981). The Tokugawa Political Settlement. For a biography of Oda Nobunaga, see Jeroen Lamers, Japonius Tyrannus: The Japanese Warlord Oda Nobunaga Reconsidered (Leiden: Hotei Publishing, 2001). For a biography of Hideyoshi, see Mary Elizabeth Berry, Hideyoshi (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982). For a useful and visually rich (hundreds of illustrations, graphs and sex schools a good idea maps) survey of the founding and development of the city of shoot, Edo, see Akira Naito, Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History (New York: Kodansha International, 2003). For more on Christianity in early modern Japan, see Jurgis Elisonas, The Cambridge History of Japan , Vol. 4: Early Modern Japan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); for a study of international relations and diplomacy in the Tokugawa period that refutes the idea that Tokugawa Japan was a “closed country,” see Ronald P. Toby, State and Diplomacy in Early Modern Japan: Asia in the Development of the Tokugawa Bakufu (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984).
Historians have characterized the type of government practiced in the Tokugawa period in essay, various ways: “an integrated yet decentralized state structure,” the “compound state,” and Edwin O. Reischauer’s celebrated oxymoron “centralized feudalism” are only a few of the often awkward terms devised to describe the essential Tokugawa balance of authority and autonomy. “Integrated yet decentralized state structure” comes from how to shoot essay Eiko Ikegami, The Taming of the Samurai: Honorific Individualism and a good idea the Making of how to a photo essay, Early Modern Japan (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995), pp. An Essay. 164-176. Ikegami also uses the term “neo-feudal” in a comparative context. “The compound state” is used by Mark Ravina, following Mizubayashi Takeshi, in a photo essay, “State-building and Political Economy in Early-modern Japan,” Journal of Asian Studies , Vol. 54, No. 4 (November 1995), pp. 997-1022. “Centralized feudalism” appears in Edwin O. Reischauer, “Japanese Feudalism,” in on migration, Rushton Coulborn, ed., Feudalism in History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956). Economic Growth and Social Change. When speaking in aggregate demographic or economic terms, it is important to how to shoot a photo essay note that growth and decline, whether in terms of population or economy, varied considerably in terms of on cricket is waste of time, geographic region. In general, the most economically advanced and prosperous areas of the country were the Kinai Plain, the area of central-western Honshu surrounding the cities of Kyoto and Osaka; northern Ky#363;sh#363;; and, by the mid-Tokugawa period, the Kant#333; Plain area around the city of how to a photo essay, Edo.
By contrast, the essay, most economically backward and poor areas of Japan tended to be found in the northeast, in what is today called the T#333;hoku region and in the Tokugawa period was comprised of the large province of Dewa and Mutsu. The Emergence of Commoner Culture. For a partial translation of Saikaku’s Life of a Sensuous Man , see Haruo Shirane, ed., Early Modern Japanese Literature: An Anthology, 1600-1900 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), pp. A Photo. 45-57. A full translation of Chikamatsu’s Love Suicides at essay, Amijima can be found in Donald Keene, Four Major Plays of Chikamatsu (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988). Literacy, Education, and the Library of Public Information. In his recent study of popular literacy in early modern Japan, Richard Rubinger argues that “the Japanese data demonstrate that in certain circumstances geography may be a more influential variable with respect to literacy attainment than gender.” See Richard Rubinger, Popular Literacy in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2007), p. 7. For an absorbing account of a ne’er-do-well samurai in the early 19th century who claimed to have overcome illiteracy in order to write his autobiography of sorts, see Katsu K#333;kichi, Musui’s Story: The Autobiography of shoot essay, a Tokugawa Samurai , translated by Teruko Craig (Tucson: University of essay, Arizona Press, 1988). The definition of 90 percent of Japan’s population as farmers is based on the estimate that by 1700, roughly 10 percent of Japan’s population lived in shoot, cities with populations over 10,000; half of that 10 percent lived in cities with populations over 100,000. By comparison, only about 2 percent of how to essay, Europeans lived in cities of over how to shoot essay 100,000.
This made Tokugawa Japan one of the most urban countries in the world at the time. Essay. Figures on urbanization are from Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 23. The Discontented and the End of an Era. The term “aristocratic revolution” comes from Thomas C. Essay Is Waste Of Time. Smith, “Japan’s Aristocratic Revolution,” in Native Sources of Japanese Industrialization, 1750-1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), pp. 133-147. For more on the debate on merit, see Thomas C. Shoot Essay. Smith, “’Merit’ as Ideology in the Tokugawa Period,” in Native Sources of crime, Japanese Industrialization , op. cit., p. 169. Copyright 2010 Program for how to shoot a photo essay, Teaching East Asia, University of Colorado. Permission is given to reproduce this essay for classroom use only.
Other reproduction is prohibited without written permission from the Program for Teaching East Asia.
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Le Complexe d'Oedipe - Analyse d'un mythe fondateur. Je met sur cette page, la disposition de tous, cet admirable expos, crit par Eve PREVOT et Estelle GUIZOL, qui explique la lgende d'Śdipe, le complexe qu'en a tir Sigmund Freud, ainsi que la place que le hros grec occupe dans le milieu artistique et dans l'art lui mme. Analyse d'un mythe fondateur. III/ Extraits de la pice Śdipe Roi. L'histoire d'Oedipe, qui appartient au cycle des lgendes thbaines, est l'une des plus importantes de la mythologie grecque.
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Quels parents ? Attends! Quel est donc ici-bas dont je suis n ? Ce jour t'apportera ta naissance et ta perte. Comme tu parles toujours mots couverts, nigmatiques ! N'est-ce pas ta spcialit de les claircir ? C'est un don que tu as. Des insultes de ce genre, soit : tu ne sauras en cela qu'clairer ma grandeur. C'est pourtant prcisment cette chance-l qui t'a perdu. Si j'ai sauv cette cit, peu m'importe le reste. Eh bien, je me retire. Shoot A Photo Essay! [ l'enfant qui l'accompagne.] Allons, mon enfant, emmne-moi. Qu'il t'emmne, oui. Essay! Dbarrasse-moi de ta prsence, elle m'est odieuse. How To A Photo Essay! Disparais, ce sera un soulagement pour moi. Je me retire, mais je te laisse la rponse pour laquelle je suis venu.
Ton sourcil ne me fait pas peur, tu ne peux rien pour m'abattre. About Crime! En vrit, je te le dis, cet homme que tu cherches depuis quelque temps, en faisant des proclamations comminatoires sur le meurtre de Laos, cet homme est ici. How To Shoot A Photo! Il passe pour un tranger, un immigr, mais son origine se rvlera: il est authentiquement thbain. Greatest Essay Time! Et il n'aura pas se louer de l'vnement. How To! Car il sera aveugle, lui, dont les yeux sont ouverts; il mendiera, lui, qui est dans l'opulence ; vers le sol tranger, ttonnant devant lui avec son bton, il ira cheminant. Shoot! On dcouvrira qu'il a prs de lui des enfants dont il est tout ensemble le frre et le pre ; que de la femme dont il est n, lui, le fils, il est aussi l'poux; qu'il a ensemenc le mme sillon que son pre; et qu'il est son meurtrier. How To A Photo Essay! Va, rentre chez toi, mdite mes paroles. Essay! Et si tu me prends t'avoir menti, alors je te permets d'affirmer que je n'entends rien la divination.
Śdipe, devenu roi de Thbes, s'entretient avec le devin Tirsias, qui est venu lui prdire un oracle hors du commun : celui de l'assassin de Laos, homme que recherche Śdipe. Si Śdipe ne fait pas le lien entre l'homme concern par l'oracle et sa propre personne, c'est sans doute car sa position d'homme puissant, et la sensation de servir pour le bien de sa cit l'aveugle trop. Shoot Essay! Il chasse mme avec une attitude discourtoise ce devin qui selon lui n'est qu'une perte de temps, et un profanateur d'neries. Essay! Srement Tirsias sait-il qu'Śdipe perdra sa prestance et son honneur quand sera faite la lumire sur ses origines et la gravit de ses actes, mais il ne s'tend pas plus loin que sur son oracle. Ignorant du drame ancien, Śdipe a couru sa perte, et plus rien ne pourra l'en sortir : il a accomplit son terrible destin, et occuper le trne royal ne peut rien y changer. Nous avons affaire un pisode particulirement important qui installe le drame et claire son protagoniste d'un jour trs cru. Shoot A Photo! l'ouverture de la pice, Cron, porte-parole d'Apollon, a clairement pos le problme, trouver et vacuer la souillure qui affecte Thbes. Essay! Dans cet pisode, qui consiste en un change particulirement violent entre le devin Tirsias et l'enquteur Śdipe, Sophocle attire d'emble l'attention sur Śdipe, et sur le destin.
Plus prcisment, sur celui qui est l'objet ou le jouet du destin, sur les modes d'nonciation de ce dernier, et sur ses ractions. Cet pisode ouvre vritablement la pice, en mettant nu la fois le protagoniste (Śdipe), le ressort (retournement), et en rvlant sa potique fonde sur le mystre. A Photo Essay! On a parl parfois d'Śdipe Roi comme d'une pice policire, et elle a mme t rcemment rcrite dans cette perspective. Greatest Essay Of All! Ce rapprochement n'est acceptable qu'en prcisant que le coupable est mis jour ds la premire scne. Shoot Essay! Il faut accepter Śdipe Roi pour ce qu'elle est, c'est dire une tragdie, fonde davantage sur l'aveuglement de l'homme en proie des forces qu'il ne contrle pas, que sur une enqute qui suppose la matrise d'un sujet sr de lui-mme. Shoot A Photo! Un statut auquel Śdipe, au terme de cet pisode, ne peut plus prtendre. Le complexe d'Śdipe est un ensemble organis de dsirs amoureux et hostiles que l'enfant prouve l'gard de ses parents. How To Essay! Sous sa forme dite positive, le complexe se prsente comme dans l'histoire d'Śdipe-Roi : dsir de la mort de ce rival qu'est le personnage du mme sexe et dsir sexuel pour le personnage du sexe oppos. Shoot A Photo! Sous sa forme ngative, il se prsente l'inverse: amour pour le parent du mme sexe et haine jalouse du parent du sexe oppos.
En fait ces deux formes se retrouvent des degrs divers dans la forme complte du complexe d'Śdipe. Nombreux ont t les psychanalystes intresss par le complexe d'Śdipe. How To Essay! L'un d'entre eux, Freud s'y est tout particulirement pench. L'expression de «complexe d'Śdipe» n'apparat que tardivement dans l'śuvre de Freud (1910). An Essay About! Sa dcouverte est cependant prpare depuis longtemps. How To! Freud est amen par son auto-analyse reconnatre en lui l'amour pour sa mre, et envers son pre une jalousie en conflit avec l'affection qu'il lui porte. En 1897, il crit son ami Fliess: «J'ai trouv en moi comme partout ailleurs des sentiments d'amour envers ma mre et de la jalousie envers mon pre, sentiments qui sont, je pense, communs tous les jeunes enfants.» Freud ajoute: «Le pouvoir d'emprise d'Śdipe-roi devient intelligible, […] le mythe grec met en valeur une compulsion que chacun reconnat pour avoir peru en lui-mme des traces de son existence.» C'est ainsi que d'emble Freud affirme l'universalit de l'śdipe: « Tout tre humain se voit imposer la tche de matriser le complexe d'Śdipe… » Il s'agit de l'ensemble organis des dsirs la fois amoureux et hostiles que l'enfant prouve vis--vis de ses parents lors de la phase phallique*. Are Single Sex Schools Essay! Selon Freud, cette phase se situe chez l'enfant entre 3 et 5 ans. Shoot! Son dclin correspond pour lui l'entre dans la priode de latence*. About! Lors de la pubert, le complexe d'Śdipe connat une sorte de rsonance que l'adolescent surmonte avec plus ou moins de succs.
Le complexe d'Śdipe est un «procs» qui doit conduire la disparition de ces dsirs. Selon Freud, le complexe d'Śdipe joue un rle fondamental dans la structuration de la personnalit et dans l'orientation du dsir humain. On pourrait relier Śdipe et son complexe l'actualit. A Photo Essay! Dans la vie courante, bon nombre de jeunes garons admirent leur mre et la voient comme une divinit, comme le modle exemplaire suivre et esprent dtrner leur pre en pousant leur mre un jour. Greatest Writers Of All Time! Ce fait prouve que l'humanit n'a pas chang et d'ailleurs ne changera pas de sitt, Śdipe est donc encore bel et bien d'actualit.
On peut aussi aisment retrouver le contexte similaire celui d'Śdipe dans un cadre de famille contemporain mais sans le dsir de mariage ou bien la haine envers un parent que peut prouver l'enfant dans une autre situation. Un peintre comme Picasso en est l'illustration mme. Ainsi, quand Picasso avait 13 ans, son pre, amateur passionn de peinture, lui cda ses pinceaux avant de cesser totalement de peindre. How To Essay! Cet vnement prit une grande signification psychologique dans la vie de l'artiste qui fit un parallle entre le parricide* et le fait d'avoir tu la crativit de son pre. A Good Essay! Puis, Picasso dclara un jour : En art chacun doit tuer son propre pre. Picasso reconnaissait la relation troite entre le meurtre symbolique de son pre et le complexe d'Śdipe selon Freud. Shoot A Photo Essay! Il adopta mme Śdipe comme un alter ego secret. On Migration In India! Śdipe fut un thme la mode chez les surralistes et chez ceux qui frquentaient Picasso dans les annes '20. La ccit* tait un autre thme trs important pour Picasso, pour qui la peinture tait un mtier d'aveugle. Shoot! On peut percevoir un lien entre ce thme et Śdipe puisqu'il se creva les yeux lorsqu'il ralisa qu'il avait tu son pre et qu'il s'tait mari avec sa mre. Une tude d'Śdipe rvle instinctivement un lien avec la ralit malgr les apparences. Time! Certes, l'aventure de ce Roi et le tragique de sa destine peuvent paratre compltement absurdes et fantaisistes de par son surralisme et l'incrdibilit qu'il en mane.
Mais, il faut prciser qu' l'origine, se cache derrire cette tragdie un phnomne rel et pas si irraliste que cela n'y parat. Le scnario de mythe n'est qu'une couverture derrire laquelle se dissimule une ide philosophique importante et toujours d'actualit. Ces raisons nous ont rendu cet expos agrable raliser puisque attirant d'une part grce son ct fantastique mais aussi et surtout grce ce que l'on peut en tirer et en analyser. A Photo Essay! Comparer un mythe aussi ancien l'actualit est il est vrai intressant et nous a motiv approfondir ces recherches incessantes et les rendre moins superficielles. Cette lgende incomparable autant qu'incontournable a bel et bien travers les poques ainsi que les ges proposant encore au moderne les plus hautes leons de morales et de posie. Tous ces lments, on crime, l'espre, vous auront satisfait et auront t traits comme il se doit, la hauteur de ce sujet incomparable. Stade phallique : stade durant lequel a lieu le dveloppement de la sexualit infantile, qui succde au stade oral et pendant lequel l'intrt de l'enfant mle se porte sur la verge. Priode de latence : temps d'arrt dans le dveloppement de la sexualit, du dclin de la sexualit infantile au dbut de la pubert. Parricide : meurtre commis par un enfant l'gard d'un parent.
Ccit : tat d'une personne prive de la vue. Merci d'avoir lu cet expos, j'spre qu'il vous a plu ! N'hsitez pas passer voir mes autres articles !