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Are Gender Roles Socially Constructed? - GCSE Sociology

Sociology essay gender roles

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bios resume f1 This chapter describes how to power on and off the server, as well as how to configure BIOS settings. The following topics are discussed in this chapter. Refer to sociology roles the following topics in this section to power on on migration and off a server: The following procedure assumes the gender roles server module is essay, installed in sociology roles, a powered-on chassis. 1. Man Essay! Verify that the server is in a standby power state. In a Standby power state, the OK power LED on the front panel of the server blinks (0.1 second on, 2.9 seconds off). Sociology! A standby power state indicates that the server module SP is active but the server module host is powered-off. Island! See FIGURE 1-1 for the OK Power LED location. 2. Apply full power to the server SP and host. Local server power-on . Essay Gender Roles! Use a non-conductive pointed object or stylus to press and release the recessed Power button on the server module front panel. ILOM SP web interface power-on . Log in to the ILOM web interface for the server SP and select: Remote Control -- Remote Power Control --Power On.

ILOM SP CLI power-on. Log in to the SP ILOM CLI and type: start /SYS. Theory Of Knowledge Essay! The OK/Power LED on the server module front panel illuminates a steady-on green light. The steady-on LED state indicates that the server module SP and host are both powered-on. 2.1.2 Power Off and Verify Server Is Ready for Removal From Chassis. Follow these steps to ensure that the server is properly powered off and is ready for essay, removal from chassis. 1. Power off the server. Graceful shutdown from local server. Use a stylus (or other pointed object) to press and release the affirmative essay Power button on the front panel. This operation will cause any Advanced Configuration and sociology, Power Interface (ACPI) enabled operating systems to perform an orderly shutdown of the operating system. Servers not running ACPI-enabled operating systems will shut down to standby power mode immediately.

Emergency shutdown from theory essay questions 2011 local server. Sociology Gender Roles! Press and hold the Power button for at least five seconds to force the essay main power off. ILOM CLI shutdown. Log in to the SP ILOM CLI and type: ILOM web interface shutdown. Essay Roles! Log in to the ILOM web interface for the server SP and do the following: a. Select Remote Control -- Remote Power Control. b. Select one of the essay's following actions from the drop-down list. Immediate Power Off: Select to power off the sociology essay server. Essay On Migration! Graceful Shutdown and Power Off: Select to sociology essay gracefully shut down the system operating system before the system is powered off. Refer to photography the Sun Integrated Lights Out Manager 2.0 User’s Guide (820-1188) for more information. 2. To ensure that the system is powered off and ready to be removed from the chassis, do the following: a. Verify that the green power LED on the front panel of the server is in standby or off state. b. Ensure that the system was prepared for removal on sociology essay roles the Component Management tab in competition, ILOM.

In the Component Management tab, a Ready (no power) status will appear in the Ready To Remove column for the server. For more details, see the sociology gender roles prepare to remove component procedures in the Sun Integrated Lights Out Manager 2.0 Users Guide (820-1188). For information about removing the server from the affirmative essay chassis and removing the cover from the roles server, see Removing the Server From the Chassis and Removing the Cover. 2.1.3 Troubleshoot Server Power States. Essay! Each time a server module powers on in the Sun Blade 6000 or 6048 Series Chassis, it queries the CMM to ensure that there is enough power available from the power supply units (PSUs) to power on the server. If there is not enough power to power on the server module, the SP denies the sociology server module from receiving power (standby and main). If this situation occurs, the OK/Power LED on the front panel of the server module will remain off. To troubleshoot this power issue, follow these guidelines: 1. Review the ILOM Event Log messages to determine if the server has permission to power on. An event message is recorded in the log any time there is not an adequate amount of power available from the PSUs to essay on migration power on the server module. For more information about the sociology essay roles ILOM event log or monitoring power consumption, refer to the Sun Integrated Lights Out Manger 2.0 User’s Guide (820-1188).

2. Ensure that the system chassis has the affirmative proper amount of power supplies installed to support powering on all the chassis components currently installed. Refer to the system chassis documentation for information about the number of power supplies required to power on chassis components. 3. Gender! To avoid power loss, it is recommended that you use the default CMM power management settings for PSUs in ILOM. For more information about power management, refer to the Sun Blade X6270 Server Module ILOM 2.0 Supplement Guide (820-6180) and the Sun Integrated Lights Out Manger 2.0 (ILOM 2.0) User’s Guide (820-1188) . Wake On LAN (WOL) enables you to power on a server from another location over essay in india a network connection. Sociology Gender Roles! Specifically this feature provides the ability for the network controller in essayeur, the server to power the server on when a magic packet is received over roles the network from competition a remote system. 1. The Wake On LAN (WOL) feature in the Boot menu of the BIOS must be enabled. 2. The server must be installed in a chassis that has an gender established connection to an active power source. For details about how to install the power supply modules in a chassis and connect them to an active power source, see the documentation supplied with your chassis. 3. The WOL network port in the server must be connected to an active Ethernet connection.

For details about how to install a chassis network module and connect it to an active Ethernet connection, see the documentation supplied with your chassis. 4. Pilote Automobile! You must have another system on the network which can send magic packets to network adapter (MAC address) that is installed in the server. Typically you could use a magic packet program to send the packets over the network to wake a shutdown (WOL-enabled) server. For more details about how to send a magic packet over the network to a WOL-enabled server, refer to the documentation supplied with the magic packet program. Sociology Essay Roles! 5. Test the WOL implementation by ensuring the magic packet sent over the network powers on the server. If the test fails, verify that your network environment supports magic packets. For instance, some switches and routers may block magic packets. The Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) has a setup utility stored in the BIOS flash memory.

The setup utility reports system information and can be used to configure the BIOS settings. The configurable data is provided with context-sensitive help and is stored in the system's battery-backed CMOS RAM. If the configuration stored in theory essay questions, the CMOS RAM is invalid, the BIOS settings return to their default optimal values. There are seven menus in the BIOS Setup Utility, which appear in this order: Main, Advanced, PCI, Boot, Security, Chipset, and gender, Exit. To navigate the essay menus or options listed on the menu, use the arrow keys. The options or fields that you can configure on a menu appear in color. For further instructions on how to navigate and change settings in sociology gender roles, the BIOS Setup Utility, refer to the online instructions provided on the menu. For additional information about the BIOS operations and essay, menu options available on your server, refer to the following sections: 2.2.1 BIOS Booting and Set Up Considerations.

Refer to the following sections for information when booting the BIOS and other. set up considerations: 2.2.1.1 Default BIOS Power-On Self-Test (POST) Events. At system startup, the BIOS performs a power-on self-test that checks the hardware on your server to sociology roles ensure that all components are present and functioning properly. Island Man Essay! TABLE 2-1 identifies the essay gender roles events that can occur during BIOS POST, as well as specifies whether these event can prevent the host from powering-on. Boot continues on host? User password violation. Attempt to enter password fails three times. Setup password violation. Photography! Attempt to enter password fails three times.

Correctable ECC (error correction code) error detected. Uncorrectable ECC error detected. No system memory. No physical memory detected in the system. No usable system memory. All installed memory has experienced an unrecoverable failure. Hard disk controller failure. No disk controller found. Keyboard cannot be initialized. Boot media failure. No removable boot media is found.

No video device. No video controller is found. Firmware (BIOS) ROM corruption. BIOS checksum fails and the boot block is not corrupted. System boot initiated. Initiated by hard reset. Boot process started by essay roles, hard reset. Memory sizing is in india, occurring. Sociology Gender Roles! System firmware progress.

Primary processor initialization. Primary CPU initialization. System firmware progress. Initiated by warm reset. Boot process started by warm reset. Embedded controller management. Management controller initialization. Secondary processor(s) initialization. Of Knowledge Questions! Secondary CPU initialization asserted. System firmware progress.

When BIOS initializes keyboard. Gender! Keyboard controller initialization. When BIOS initializes keyboard. Option ROM initialization. BIOS initializes Option ROMs. System firmware progress. Option ROM space exhausted.

BIOS cannot copy an option to the memory. User initiated system set up. End user initiated access to pilote BIOS Setup Utility. System firmware progress. User initiated boot to sociology gender OS. System boot initiated. System firmware progress. No bootable media. Nothing to essay's boot from. PXE server not found. Boot error - PXE server not found.

F12 key was pressed but BIOS fails to boot from PXE server. ACPI Power state. Roles! Soft-off power applied. Each power-on-self-test (POST) diagnostic is a low-level test designed to pinpoint faults in a specific hardware component. Questions! If the POST diagnostics discloses an essay gender F1 or F2 error, it typically reports the following information about the error: When or where the error occurred. TABLE 2-2 lists some of the F1 and F2 error messages that could appear during the POST diagnostics along with instructions for photography, how to possibly resolve the sociology essay gender error reported. BIOS POST Error Message. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) Protocol Error (Please Check SP Log for 2011, more Details) Press F1 to continue.

Check the SP event log in ILOM for sociology roles, more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) QPI [ x ] Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Check the essay's fault management function and the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - Where QPI [ x ] equals 0 for QPI Link 0 or 1 for QPI Link 1. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) PCI-E [ x ] Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Check the fault management function and the SP event log in ILOM for more details.

Note - Where PCI-E [ x ] port number can range from 1 to 10 depending on the PCI root port on IOH. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) ESI Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Essay Roles! Check the fault management function and the SP event log in ILOM for affirmative essay, more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) Thermal Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Check the fault management function and the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) DMA Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log for more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) Miscellaneous Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Sociology Essay Gender Roles! Check the in india fault management function and the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) VTd Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue.

Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Roles! BMC Not Responding. Note - This error message might display if during the pilote automobile SP/BIOS communication an internal error occurs. This error might require you to restart the SP. Primary Master Hard Disk Error Primary Slave Hard Disk Error Secondary Master Hard Disk Error Secondary Slave Hard Disk Error. Essay Roles! Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Island Man Essay! Note - These error messages display when the BIOS is attempting to configure IDE/ATAPI devices in POST. 8254 timer error.

Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - This type of error typically indicates an error while programming the count register of channel 2 of the sociology gender 8254 timer. This could indicate a problem with system hardware. RAM R/W test failed. Memory test failure. Press F1 to continue. Of Knowledge Questions! Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - This type of error typically indicates that the RAM read/write test failed. KBC BAT Test failed. Keyboard controller basic assurance test error.

Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - Keyboard controller BAT test failed. This error might indicate a problem with keyboard controller initialization. Display memory test failed.

Video display error. Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. CMOS Battery Low. CMOS battery error. Press F2 to enter BIOS Setup Utility to load system defaults. Check the SP event log in sociology essay gender, ILOM for essay competition, more details. If necessary, replace CMOS battery. CMOS Checksum Bad CMOS Date/Time Not Set. Roles! Press F2 to enter BIOS Setup Utility to load system defaults.

Check the SP event log in essay, ILOM for more details. Password check failed. Password check error. Press F1 to sociology continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - This type of error indicates that the password entered does not match the password specified in the BIOS Setup Utility. Affirmative! This condition might occur for both Supervisor and User password verification.

Keyboard controller error. Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for sociology roles, more details. Note - This type of of knowledge essay questions, error indicates that the Keyboard Controller failure. This error might indicate a problem with system hardware. S.M.A.R.T error on the drive. S.M.A.R.T device error.

Press F1 to sociology essay continue. Check the pilote automobile SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - S.M.A.R.T. failure messages might indicate the need to replace the storage device. 2.2.1.3 How BIOS POST Memory Testing Works. The BIOS POST memory testing is performed as follows: 1. The first megabyte of DRAM is sociology roles, tested by the BIOS before the BIOS code is copied from ROM to DRAM.

2. After existing out of DRAM, the BIOS performs a simple memory test (where a write/read of every location with the photography essay's pattern 55aa55aa is performed). 3. The BIOS polls the memory controllers for both correctable and non-correctable memory errors and logs those errors into the SP. 4. The message, BMC Responding appears at the end of sociology, POST. 2.2.1.4 PCI Express ExpressModule Slot Booting Priority. The Sun Blade X6270 Server Module supports up to two chassis PCI Express ExpressModules (PCIe EMs) per server module. The chassis slots for the PCIe Express Modules are detected by the BIOS during startup in this order: PCIe EM BL n .1 and PCIe EM BL n .0. For example, if the server is in on migration, slot 3, the BIOS boot priority is 3.1, 3.0. See the chassis documentation for essay roles, further information on PCIe EMs. 2.2.1.5 Ethernet Port Device and Driver Naming. Island! The Sun Blade X6270 Server Module supports up to two 10/100/1000BASE-T Gigabit Ethernet ports provided by the network express modules (NEMs) installed in essay gender roles, the chassis.

The lower NEM port is NET 0 and the upper NEM port is NET 1, as shown in man essay, FIGURE 2-1. If you have the InfiniBand NEM installed, only one Ethernet port per server module will be available. FIGURE 2-1 Ethernet Port Chassis Labeling Designations. For further information on NEMs, see the chassis documentation. The device naming for the Ethernet interfaces is reported differently by different interfaces and operating systems.

FIGURE 2-2 for a diagram that explains the gender roles logical (operating system) and man essay, physical (BIOS) naming conventions used for each interface. FIGURE 2-2 Sun Blade X6270 Server Module Ethernet Port Naming. 2.2.1.6 Ethernet Port Booting Priority. The order in which the BIOS detects the Ethernet ports during bootup, and the corresponding drivers that control those ports, are listed below: 1. NET 0 (INTEL NIC 0) 2. NET 1 (INTEL NIC 1) TABLE 2-3 provides descriptions for essay gender roles, the seven top-level BIOS setup menus. General system information.

Configuration interface for the CPUs, SATA, ACPI, Event Log, IPMI, MPS, Remote Access, and USB. Plug-and-Play (PnP) devices can be configured by the BIOS (default), or by the operating system (if applicable). Configure the boot device priority (CD/DVD, removables, hard disks, solid state disks, networks). Install or change the user and supervisor passwords. Configuration options for the NorthBridge and SouthBridge devices. Note that the Memory Chipkill option is enabled by default. Photography! Enabling Chipkill improves system reliability but degrades system performance under specific applications. Gender Roles! Save or discard changes. FIGURE 2-3 identifies the sub-menus that you can access from each of the seven top-level BIOS menus.

FIGURE 2-3 Sun Blade X6270 Server Module BIOS Configuration Utility Menu Tree. For an example of the options that are available on the BIOS Setup Utility menus, see Appendix B. 2.2.3 Enabling Support for Common BIOS Settings. This section includes instructions for: 2.2.3.1 Accessing the photography essay's BIOS Setup Utility Menus. The following procedures describes the steps for sociology gender, accessing the BIOS Setup Utility menus. Affirmative Essay! Access BIOS Setup Utility Menus. 1. Power-on or power-cycle the gender server.

2. To enter the BIOS Setup Utility, press the F2 key while the system is performing the power-on self-test (POST). Alternatively, you can also use the following hot key combinations when accessing the BIOS Setup Utility from a serial connection: The BIOS Setup Utility dialog appears. 2.2.3.2 Enabling Support for Wake ON LAN. After installing the operating system, you might want to consider enabling the Wake On LAN (WOL) option in the BIOS Setup Utility. This features enables you to power on the server from another location over the network. Enable or Disable WOL in BIOS. 1. Access the BIOS Setup Utility menus. 2. Essay Questions 2011! In the BIOS Setup Utility menus, use the arrow keys (or Tab key) to navigate to essay the Boot menu. Essay's! 3. In the Boot menu, highlight the sociology gender roles Wake ON LAN setting, and then press Enter. A tab appears listing the Wake ON LAN options, one for each network port.

4. In the tab, enable the appropriate port (for example, NET0 WAKE ON LAN for network port 0), then press Enter and do one of the in india following: Select Enabled to enable the essay Wake On LAN setting. Select Disabled to disable the college essay competition Wake On LAN setting. 5. Press F10 to save and sociology gender, exit. 6. Prior to testing whether the Wake ON LAN feature is active, ensure that all the setup requirements for Wake ON LAN have been met. For more details, see WOL Set Up Requirements. If you intend to use the Trusted Platform Module (TPM) feature set that is provided in Windows 2003 and Windows 2008, you must configure the automobile Sun Blade X6270 Server Module to support this feature. For details, see the following procedure.

Configure TPM Support. 1. Access the BIOS Setup Utility menus. 2. In the BIOS Setup Utility dialog box, select the Advanced menu option. The Advanced page appears. 3. In the Advanced menu, select Trusted Computing and press Enter. The Trusted Computing screen appears. 4. In the essay Advanced Trusted Computing menu, select the TCG/TPM Support. A tab appears listing the available TCG/TPM options. 5. Man Essay! In the tab, set the TCG/TPM Support option to Yes and click OK. The updated Trusted Computing screen appears and indicating that the TCG/TPM Support setting has changed to Yes. 6. In the Advanced Trusted Computing menu, select the Execute TPM Command and press Enter.

A tab appears listing the available Execute TPM Command options. 7. In the tab, set the Execute TPM Command option to Enabled and click OK. The updated Trusted Computing screen appears and indicating that the Execute TPM Command setting has changed to Enabled . 8. Essay Roles! Press F10 to save the changes and exit BIOS. 9. To verify that TPM support is enabled, do the following: a. Reboot the server then access the BIOS Setup Utility by pressing F2 key. The BIOS Setup Utility screen appears. b. In the BIOS Setup Utility dialog box, select Advanced -- Trusted Computing and theory essay questions, press Enter.

The updated Trusted Computing screen appears indicting that TPM Support is set to essay gender Yes and TPM Enable Status is set to Enabled. 10. Press F10 to exit BIOS. You can assign an IP address for the server SP from the BIOS Setup Utility on the IPMI LAN configuration menu. Alternatively, you can also specify the LAN settings for the SP using ILOM. For instructions for setting the photography essay's IP address in ILOM, see the Sun Integrated Lights Out Manager 2.0 User’s Guide . To set the IP address in the BIOS Setup Utility, use the menus to navigate to the LAN configuration setting as follows: Advanced -- IPMI Configuration -- LAN Configuration. See FIGURE 2-3 for menu navigation tree. Configure LAN Settings for SP. Gender Roles! 1. Access the photography BIOS Setup Utility menus. 2. In the BIOS Setup Utility menus, use the roles arrow keys (or Tab key) to navigate to the Advanced menu.

3. In the Advanced menu, select IPMI Configuration. 4. In the IPMI Configuration menu, select LAN Confutation. 5. In the affirmative LAN Configuration settings dialog, use the arrow keys to select and specify the appropriate LAN configuration settings. 6. Press F10 to save the changes and exit. 2.2.3.5 Configuring Option ROM Settings in BIOS.

The BIOS Option ROM is 128 kbytes. Sociology Essay Gender! Of these 128 kbytes, approximately 80 kbytes are used by the VGA controller, the essay 2011 disk controller, and the network interface card. Approximately 48 kbytes remain for essay gender roles, the Option ROM. Enable or Disable Option ROM Settings. 1. Access the BIOS Setup Utility menus. 2. In the BIOS Setup Utility menus, use the arrow keys (or Tab key) to navigate to the Boot menu. The Boot menu appears. 3. In the Boot menu, highlight the Option ROM setting, and then press Enter. Essay's! 4. In the Boot menu listing the Option ROM settings, highlight the essay gender roles applicable Option ROM setting to modify, then press Enter. A tab appears listing the available settings. 5. In the tab, do one of the following: Select Enabled to enable the Option ROM setting.

Select Disabled to disable the essay's Option ROM setting. 6. Press F10 to save and exit. The BIOS is updated whenever you update the ILOM SP firmware. For instructions about updating the firmware, refer to the Sun Integrated Lights Out Manager 2.0 User’s Guide (820-1188) . Copyright © 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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matt kupchik resume Dr. Sociology Gender? Mithoefer's MAPS-sponsored. FDA Phase 2 pilot study. We need your support so together we can make a difference. BROWSE MDMA INFORMATION: MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) : Site 1. Principal Investigator: Michael Mithoefer, MD, with co-therapist Ann Mithoefer, BSN. Location: Charleston, SC (USA) MAPS’ flagship Phase 2 pilot study is the first-ever protocol evaluating MDMA’s therapeutic applications in clinical trials conducted under an FDA IND.

Like all of MAPS’ psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy studies, the protocol is randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled. All twenty-one subjects with treatment-resistant PTSD, as a result of sexual abuse, crime, or war, have completed the experimental treatment. The study was completed in September 2008. The data analysis, writing a scientific paper for publication, and the one-year follow-up remain to be completed. MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) : Site 2. Principal Investigator: Peter Oehen, MD, with co-therapist Verena Widmer, RN. Location: Solothurn (Switzerland) Our Swiss MDMA/PTSD pilot study has full approval from an of knowledge Ethics Committee (Swiss IRB equivalent) and sociology essay gender SwissMedic (FDA equivalent). The protocol has also been submitted to and accepted by FDA under MAPS’ Investigational New Drug (IND) for MDMA. As a result, the study fits into MAPS’ initiative to develop MDMA.

into a prescription medicine approved by both the FDA and the European Medicines’ Agency (EMEA). Over half of twelve subjects with treatment-resistant PTSD from any cause have undergone the photography experimental treatment. MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy in sociology the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) : Site 3. Principal Investigator: Moshe Kotler, MD, with co-therapists Sergio Marchevsky, MD, Rakefet Rodrigez, MD, and competition Marina Kupchik. Location: Beer Yaakov Mental Health Center (Israel) This study has full approval from the roles Israeli Ethics Committee and island man essay Ministry of Health. The experimental treatments are being conducted at sociology essay roles Beer Yaakov Mental. Health Center, near Tel Aviv, under the direction of Principal Investigator Moshe Kotler, M.D., former chief psychiatrist of the Israeli Defense Forces and current Chair, Department of Psychiatry, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University. The study will evaluate twelve subjects with treatment-resistant PTSD, mostly.

war- or terrorism-related PTSD. The first subject has competed his experimental treatment and the second an third subjects have been enrolled. Like MAPS’ Swiss. MDMA/PTSD study, the protocol has been submitted to and accepted by FDA under MAPS’ IND for MDMA, and is part of MAPS’ initiative to develop MDMA into a prescription medicine approved by both the FDA and the EMEA. MAPS has sponsored three international scientific conferences in Israel on MDMA research to facilitate the protocol approval process. MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) : Site 4. Principal Investigator: Ingrid Pacey, MD and Andrew Feldmar, PhD. Location: Vancouver, BC (Canada) This study is currently in development.

Enrollment is expected to begin in Spring 2009. Treatment Manual for MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy for Treatment of PTSD. Principal Investigators: June M. Essay On Migration In India? Ruse, PsyD, Lisa Jerome, PhD, Michael C. Mithoefer, MD, Rick Doblin, PhD, Elizabeth Gibson, MS. This detailed manual, an early draft of which is sociology roles already written, provides therapy researchers conducting MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD studies with standardized. methods. It will eventually enable MAPS to train therapists and evaluate therapist adherance to the approach described in the manual.

Outcome Study of Psychological Defense Mechanisms During MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy for Treatment of PTSD. Principal Investigators: Pal-Orjan Johansen, PhD (cand) and Teri Krebs. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway) IN PROCESS. This study analyzes audio and video recordings of therapy sessions from the ongoing MDMA-assisted psychotherapy studies in essay on migration in india the treatment of subjects with PTSD. The objective of this study is to provide empirical evidence on how MDMA influences defense mechanisms in the context of psychotherapy, to understand how MDMA might facilitate the therapeutic process, and to roles, inform the development of a standardized treatment manual for MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. The study has cost $15,000, with the remainder fully funded.

MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy in the Treatment of Anxiety Secondary to Advanced Stage Cancer. Principal Investigator: John Halpenr, MD. Location: McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA (USA) MAPS conducted the design and protocol approval process for this study through a direct gift to McLean Hospital. This study of essay twelve subjects is also being conducted under US FDA IND and sociology essay gender roles has received IRB approval and essay DEA licensure.

Dr. Halpern is the Sponsor/Investigator. Sociology Gender? In his FDA IND application, he cross-referenced MAPS' IND for MDMA and MAPS will have full access to the data generated from his study. The first subject has completed the experimental treatment. Protocol submitted to FDA on affirmative, November 26, 2004 (in HTML or PDF format) Protocol approved by McLean Hospital and gender roles Lahey Clinic IRBs (in HTML or PDF formats) Informed Consent Form approved by the McLean IRB (HTML or PDF) on November 19, 2004 Prescreening consent (PDF only) approved by the Lahey Clinic IRB on November 10, 2004 Treatment manual submitted for review to McLean IRB July 21, 2004. Other FDA research with MDMA. MAPS' comprehensive review of the scientific literature on MDMA Periodic updated reviews of the literature for August/September 2001-January 2003, for 2003-March 2004 (HTML and affirmative essay PDF versions), March 2004-January 2005 (HTML and roles PDF versions), and a significantly reformatted version covering research up through December 2007 (PDF) Monthly updates of MDMA-related literature MAPS MDMA bibliography with abstracts and PDFs, including a What's New section A review by Alex Gamma, Ph.D. of the island major studies exploring the possible link between MDMA and memory.

Rick Doblin has written a paper discussing how the risks of sociology roles MDMA neurotoxicity have been exaggerated by government officials and essay government-funded scientists in a manner that has been used to sociology, support prohibitionist policies. The scientific and media critiques of Ricaurte's MDMA neurotoxicity research. Ricaurte's July 2003 NIDA Grant Progress Report, obtained 1/26/04 by MAPS through Freedom of on migration in india Information Act (FOIA) request. Ricaurte explains how he determined he administered methamphetamine instead of essay gender roles MDMA to primates and describes research with genuine MDMA that didn't cause dopamine reductions. The legal record from DEA's 1984-1988 MDMA scheduling hearings Testimony by essay questions 2011, Rick Doblin, Ph.D. and others before US Sentencing Commission hearing on MDMA, 3/19/01 Why MDMA Should Not Have Been Made Illegal by Marsha Rosenbaum and Rick Doblin Meeting agenda and video archives for MDMA/Ecstasy Research: Advances, Challenges, Future Directions - NIDA-sponsored conference, July 19-20, 2001. February 6, 2009. MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy Helps Israeli Subject with PTSD from the 1967 Six-Day War: MAPS President Rick Doblin PhD is delighted to share the success of a recent MDMA-assisted psychotherapy session in sociology gender roles Israel.

Rick was told a remarkable story during a check-in with the therapy team that is conducting our Israeli MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for the treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) study. Several weeks ago, the Israeli therapists successfully treated a patient who had suffered from PTSD for over 40 years, since the Six-Day War in 1967. On his second MDMA session, the gentleman became acutely aware of fears he was still harboring within him since the war. He requested to pilote automobile, leave the treatment room for a walk outside on the hospital grounds. The therapists escorted him outside as he had a breakthrough catharsis leading to dramatic healing.

Ironically, planes were flying overhead on the way to bomb Gaza. With so much new trauma being created, it may seem underwhelming to speak of treating only 12 subjects each in our Israeli and proposed Jordanian studies. Yet if successful, these pilot projects will lead to essay roles, larger-scale studies. Furthermore, as Charles Mackay, author of Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds (published in 1841), observed, “Men, it has been well said, think in herds; it will be seen that they go mad in herds, while they only recover their senses slowly, and photography one by one.” The MAPS team is honored and humbled to help someone who has suffered for so long. We hope that in the near future MDMA-assisted psychotherapy will be available legally to all who suffer from PTSD. We believe that in the future, our successes in the laboratory will translate into a more peaceful world. Rick shared, “in the midst of war, we are developing the technologies of peace and healing.”

February 3, 2009. Health Canada Approves MDMA/PTSD Protocol Design: On January 16, Health Canada first responded to gender, our Canadian MDMA/PTSD protocol design. Island? They accepted almost all elements of the protocol but had some items they wanted changed. We also asked for a change in gender roles the kind of previous treatments for PTSD the subjects will be required to have tried and failed. On January 20, we submitted our replies, accepting some changes and essay making our best argument for why it was important to include people who were free from substance abuse histories for the last 6 months rather than for the last 12 months, as Health Canada had suggested. In addition, we asked to roles, be able to essay, include subjects who failed on other psychotherapy and either tried and failed, or refused medication. Health Canada had suggested including only subjects who had failed on other psychotherapy, and had tried and failed to obtain relief from medication - excluding subjects who refused to try medication. On February 3, we heard from Health Canada that our responses had been accepted and that our protocol design had been fully approved (Hooray!). Essay Roles? This shows yet again that it is possible to negotiate with regulatory agencies that put science first.

On January 12, we heard from photography, Health Canada’s chemistry reviewers. We’ve been gathering our replies ever since, which included obtaining a new analysis of the heavy metals and residue on ignition of the MDMA. In addition, Health Canada had a series of questions about the capsules, the lactose filler, and the bottles in which the capsules will be stored. On February 2, Professor Rudolph Brenneisen from Switzerland provided MAPS with documents regarding the chemical make-up of the MDMA that will be imported to Canada from Switzerland. Ironically, the last bit of information we need to gather is the batch number of the lactose! We expect to submit the required chemistry information in the next few days. Once the sociology essay gender roles protocol is approved, we can start the process of photography essay's obtaining the sociology essay gender roles import/export permits for the MDMA from affirmative essay, Switzerland, and can then start the sociology study itself. January 20, 2009. Flagship US MDMA/PTSD Study Final Monitoring Visit: On January 20-22, MAPS’ clinical research monitoring team, Valerie Mojeiko and Josh Sonstroem, went to Charleston, South Carolina to conduct a closeout visit for MAPS’ flagship US MDMA/PTSD study.

The data from this study is now ready to be submitted to man essay, FDA. With this ending also comes the beginning of the “long-term follow up” extension to essay gender roles, this study. During this extension, subjects who were enrolled in theory of knowledge essay 2011 the original study will be retested on primary outcome variables one year or more after completion. Essay Gender Roles? In the initial study, the theory essay last measurement of PTSD severity was taken two months after the last experimental session. Since this study took over four years to conduct, some of the data from the long-term follow-up will be from subjects who were treated over four years ago.

The value of the long-term follow-up study will be substantially enhanced as a result of the extra length of time since treatment for most of the subjects. MAPS is pleased to sociology gender roles, have the help of volunteers Scott Martin MD and affirmative Mili Ballard to coordinate this long-term follow-up study. January 2, 2009. MAPS#x2019; International MDMA/PTSD Research Progresses into the New Year. Our Swiss and Israeli MDMA/PTSD studies are continuing to essay gender roles, recruit subjects. Our Swiss study has only a few subjects still to recruit while our Israeli study has more than half remaining to be recruited. Sadly, the current war in Israel is creating many more people with PTSD. For our proposed Jordanian MDMA/PTSD study, we#x2019;re in the process of having our informed consent form translated into Arabic for review by the Jordanian IRB. We#x2019;re also making progress toward obtaining the necessary insurance to conduct a study in Jordan.

December 19, 2008. The audio version of The Economist article about theory of knowledge questions, MAPS' Flagship MDMA/PTSD study is now available in MP3 format. December 18, 2008. MDMA/PTSD Documents Submitted to sociology essay gender roles, Health Canada. On December 18, all the documents for our Canadian study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in the treatment of people with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were submitted to island man essay, Health Canada (Canada#x2019;s version of the FDA). Essay Gender? We've already obtained approval of our protocol and informed consent from a Canadian Institutional Review Board.

We should receive a reply from Health Canada within 30 days of our submission. This is photography going to be a study with 12 subjects, similar in design to the recently completed US MDMA/PTSD study. Our main purpose for this particular study is to roles, see if we can replicate the results of the US study. The budget for this study is $250,000, all of which remains to be raised. December 10, 2008. MAPS Releases Year-End MDMA Literature Review: As part of our ongoing clinical research responsibilities, MAPS reviews all of the photography MDMA- related articles published in sociology roles scientific peer-reviewed journals to determine whether we need to modify our risk/benefit analysis for our clinical studies. We have now completed our review of the scientific literature published between December 2007 and November 2008 and submitted the review to the Institutional Review Board (IRB) that oversees our US MDMA/PTSD study. Nothing in the review changes our risk/benefit analysis regarding our research in human subjects.

This review--along with all previous reviews--are compiled by MAPS Research Specialist Ilsa Jerome, and pilote automobile are posted on the MAPS website at: www.maps.org/mdma/protocol/litreview.html. December 3, 2008. Newly Revised MDMA/PTSD Treatment Manual Now Online: MAPS Researchers Michael Mithoefer MD, Annie Mithoefer BSN, and June May Ruse PhD, have created a revised version of MAPS MDMA/PTSD treatment manual. The new version of the manual builds on a previous manual from 2005, and includes lessons learned from our recently completed US MDMA/PTSD pilot study.

The team of researchers reviewed many hours of videotapes of the therapy sessions with the aim of finding clear examples of the key elements of the sociology roles therapeutic method. The manual will be continually revised as we identify best practices and gather data to link methods to essay on migration, outcomes. The manual, will also be used to develop measurement tools for identifying key elements of the therapeutic method. December 2, 2008. A family foundation that wishes to remain anonymous donated $50,000 to MAPS for our US MDMA/PTSD research. The foundation had generously supported our US MDMA/PTSD study during the early stages of the sociology research giving substantial donations that played a crucial role in launching this project. November 11, 2008. Island Man Essay? MDMA/PTSD Study With War Veterans In The Planning Stage: November 7, 2008.

Canadian IRB Gives Conditional Approval To MDMA/PTSD Protocol: October 15, 2008. The fortieth edition Journal of Psychoactive Drugs published an article “MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy Using Low Doses in a Small Sample of Women with Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder” by sociology, José Carlos Bouso PhD candidate, Rick Doblin PhD, Magí Farré MD PhD, Miguel Ángel Alcázar PhD, and Gregorio Gómez-Jarabo PhD. This article reports on the MAPS-sponsored MDMA-assisted psychotherapy study in essay Spain that was prematurely shut down by the Spanish government. The abstract of the article is as follows: October 10, 2008. From October 6-10, 2008, Michael Mithoefer MD, Annie Mithoefer BSN, and June May Ruse PhD, worked on the MDMA/PTSD treatment manual. This was their second week working together in essay gender person, with a third week anticipated in December or January.

They have reviewed many hours of videotapes of therapy sessions from Michael and Annie’s recently completed US MDMA/PTSD pilot study, with the aim of finding clear examples of the key elements of the therapeutic method. They intend to develop scales of approximately ten key elements of the therapeutic method. These scales would then be used by raters to evaluate researchers/therapists’ adherence to our specific therapeutic method. October 7, 2008. Essay? On October 7, 2008, MAPS sent a draft of a protocol for gender, a MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PSTD pilot study to Royal Jordanian Military psychiatrist Nasser Shuriquie. Island Man Essay? Dr Shuriquie needs to show the protocol to other medical officials to sociology essay gender roles, gauge whether there is sufficient support to justify submitting a final draft of the protocol to a Jordanian Ethics Committee and the Jordanian Ministry of Health. This version of our protocol differs from other pilot studies in several ways.

It begins with a three-subject open label run-in in which both the subjects and the therapists know that MDMA is in india being administered. In this way, the therapist gets a chance to practice our therapeutic technique and become familiar with the therapeutic process before administering MDMA or placebo to other subjects in the context of a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study. We believe that it is sociology important for essayeur, the therapist to get a chance to become comfortable with the sociology procedure prior to starting a controlled study. The remainder of the protocol is a nine-person study, where six subjects receive three sessions of full-dose MDMA, 125 mg followed one-and-a-half to two-and-a-half hours later by 62.5 mg. Three subjects would receive active placebo, in this case 40 mg followed 1.5-2.5 hours later by 20 mg. Our Swiss, Israeli and Canadian MDMA/PTSD pilot studies are using 25 mg as the competition active placebo while our US study used an inactive placebo.

September 17, 2008. On September 17, 2008, French psychiatrists Olivier Chambon and gender roles Fred Rosenfeld met with Patrick Lemoine MD in Lyon, France to island man essay, discuss possibilities of starting a MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD pilot study at sociology gender a clinic where they work and that Dr. Lemoine directs. MAPS President Rick Doblin PhD and Director of theory questions Operations Valerie Mojeiko spoke in essay gender roles Paris in March 2008 at a conference about hallucinations in an attempt to catalyze MDMA/PTSD research [Link to article in current MAPS Bulletin on page 17]. Essay Questions? On June, 28 2008, Valerie and Josh Sonstroem, MAPS’ Clinical Research Associates, conducted a site visit at gender roles the clinic where Drs. Theory Of Knowledge Essay 2011? Chambon and sociology Rosenfeld work. September 16, 2008. Photography Essay's? The Institutional Review Board that is reviewing our Canadian MDMA/PTSD study sent us a letter dated September 16, 2008, requesting a few changes to essay, the protocol we submitted (PDF) . We were delighted to receive this letter since it is clear now that the study itself will be approved.

The IRB has some issues of concern that need a further exchange of information before being resolved. July 6, 2008. The Sunday Baltimore Sun published an editorial (Tuning In, Not Out) supporting research into the therapeutic potential of psychedelics. Theory Questions? The editorial mentions the MAPS-supported research into MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in people with PTSD and essay gender roles ends by stating, Instead of banning drugs that are perceived as bad simply because of their recreational use, scientists should be encouraged to competition, pursue legitimate study - lest we miss out on a valuable medicinal tool. May 4, 2008. The Sunday Times (London) recently published Ecstasy is the Key to Treating PTSD, an in-depth piece on MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in people with PTSD, focusing on Dr. Mithoefer's MAPS-supported study and featuring quotes from sociology essay gender roles, MAPS president Rick Doblin and pilote automobile British psychiatrist Ben Sessa. April 3, 2008. The list of articles and essay gender roles information on potential risks of MDMA now includes a report of estimated risk of MDMA in people with hepatitis C. While there is nothing in affirmative the medical literature on the topic, this report draws on information about MDMA, heptatitis C, and drugs used to essay, treat it.

February 6, 2008. A letter by Krebs and essay Johansen commenting on and questioning the findings of the prospective study of cognitive function in ecstasy users is now published in the Archives of General Psychiatry. The letter addresses issues relating to the nature of the test score differences, the existence of long-term retest effects, participant durg use history and effects of anxiety arising from stereotype threat. Schilt and colleagues' reply appears alongside the letter. They respond to questions concerning retest learning effects and re-analyze data with respect to drug use history. Krebs and Johansen are conducting an examination of psychological defense mechanisms in experimental sessions from Mithoefer's randomized, placebo-controlled study of sociology gender roles MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in people with PTSD. November 30, 2007. MDMA is not a type of methamphetamine : Despite its title, the recent Science Daily piece Club Drugs Inflict Damage Similar To Traumatic Brain Injury is about studies on the effects of methamphetamine, not MDMA, and describes findings in rats, not people. Read a brief commentary on photography essay's, this news report. November 29, 2007. Sessa and Nutt have recently published an editorial in gender roles the Journal of affirmative Psychopharmacology, MDMA, politics and medical research: Have we thrown the sociology baby out with the bathwater?, speaking out against the effects of affirmative essay politics and regulation on medical research with MDMA and in favor of more basic and medical research.

In their editorial, Sessa and Nutt discuss the costs to the research enterprise imposed by regulation of MDMA, and proposes at least three avenues of further research. The piece is provocative and uneven, but makes for encouraging reading for supporters of MDMA psychotherapy research. November 25, 2007. Washington Post magazine published an article featured as the cover story about MAPS' and Dr. Michael Mithoefer's MDMA-PTSD research entitled Peace Drug. This article is overall positive with one minor mistake--the idea of MDMA being prescribed only by specially trained therapists in gender psychedelic clinics is attributed to competition, Dr. Michael Mithoefer when it should have been attributed to Rick Doblin Ph.D.'s dissertation.

This article is unique as it is the first time that a reporter has been allowed to interview a research participant from this historic study. You can read the comments about this article here. October 12, 2007. Sociology Essay Gender? MAPS communications director Jag Davies conducted a podcast interview (mp3) with Dr. Michael Mithoefer, in which Dr. Mithoefer discusses the details of his study, his working relationship with wife and co-therapist Annie Mithoefer, and his musings on affirmative, the psychological mechanisms involved in MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. October 10, 2007. Sixteen out of twenty subjects have completed the roles double-blind protocol in Dr. Michael Mithoefer's flagship MAPS-sponsored FDA Phase 2 study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for subjects with treatment-resistant post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Three new subjects have been enrolled, two of which are close to completion of the of knowledge first stage of the protocol. One of these new subjects is sociology essay gender a US military veteran whose trauma occurred during combat in affirmative Iraq.

Last month, MAPS and Dr. Mithoefer submitted a protocol amendment to FDA, seeking approval to treat a 21st subject, also a US veteran with PTSD from the essay gender Iraq War. We need FDA permission to island man essay, deviate from our inclusion criteria that requires all PTSD subjects to sociology essay roles, be treatment-failures from both drug and non-drug treatments. The FDA has accepted our request, which we have just submitted to our institutional review board (IRB) for essay's, final review. October 1, 2007. American Medical News published a feature article entitled Altered Perceptions: Good Outcomes from 'Club Drugs'? MAPS President Rick Doblin, PhD, and researchers Michael Mithoefer, MD, John Halpern, MD, and Charles Grob, MD, are quoted.

American Medical News is gender a weekly newspaper for physicians published by the American Medical Association that is ciculated to competition, over 230,000 physicians and health policy regulators. September 3, 2007. MAPS and Dr. Mithoefer submitted a protocol amendment to FDA, seeking approval to treat a 21st subject, a US veteran with PTSD from the Iraq War. We need FDA permission to sociology essay gender, deviate from our inclusion criteria that requires all PTSD subjects to be treatment-failures from both drug and non-drug treatments. The request to include a subject who is not a treatment-failure is due to the sad fact that this veteran, like several others with whom we have spoken, has been diagnosed with PTSD but has never been offered treatment by college essay competition, the military. We expect to hear from FDA in a few weeks. Michael Mithoefer, MD, and gender Annie Mithoefer, BSN, have enrolled 18 out of 20 subjects in college their MAPS-sponsored study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for subjects with chronic PTSD. Another two potential subjects are currently in the screening process.

The completion of MAPS' flagship FDA Phase 2 clinical research study is now in sight. July 10, 2007. No cause for essay gender, alarm: Despite claims to the contrary, the recently published meta-analysis of studies of memory in man essay ecstasy users does not demonstrate that memory is sociology essay gender roles impaired even after a few doses of ecstasy. Here are our conclusions reached after reviewing the paper and correspondence with one of the study authors. June 27, 2007. Yesterday, June 26, the 17th subject out of 20 completed the first experimental session in Dr. Island? Michael Mithoefer's MAPS-sponsored study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for subjects with treatment-resistant post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We are still actively seeking to enroll in the study at least two US veterans with PTSD from the Iraq or Afghanistan wars. This Phase II clinical study is the first-ever FDA-approved human study evaluating MDMA's therapeutic applications. Efficacy data is extremely promising so far, making a strong case for continuing research into FDA Phase III studies.

June 26, 2007. News coverage of gender a soon-to-be published research report in the journal Human Psychopharmacology vary in depth and accuracy, with some claiming Even Low ecstasy use harms memory, or Taking Ecstasy Once can Damage Memory, while others provide more details suggesting that this is not the case. The research in question is a meta-analysis of affirmative essay previous research studies. Read initial comments and reflections on essay gender roles, the news coverage and research report. June 19, 2007. On June 3, MAPS-sponsored researchers Michael Mithoefer, MD, Annie Mithoefer, RN, Peter Oehen, MD, and Verena Widmer, RN, presented on MDMA-assisted psychotherapy research at the European Conference on Traumatic Stress in Croatia. Also present at the conference was Swiss researcher Dr. Franz Vollenweider, who is conducting a physiological study of the subjects in the Swiss MDMA/PTSD study, measuring markers for PTSD before and pilote automobile after treatment. MAPS' MDMA/PTSD research now has preliminary data to share with PTSD researchers around the world.

June 5, 2007. The Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) research team has published yet one more prospective report of ecstasy users and non-users. In contrast to their earlier efforts, this report on attention and memory claims to have found differences between the gender two groups, with non-users performing better on verbal memory tests. Island Man Essay? However, the report contains problems both with the analysis and interpretation of the data. May 16, 2007. The latest data from essay roles, one of the first studies to compare people before and after they used ecstasy, part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) research program, has just appeared in the second of two reports. Essayeur Automobile? Like the first findings reported from essay roles, this study, the subsequent report also failed to find any indications that ecstasy in low doses impaired selective attention or working memory, and found no ecstasy-use related changes in essay brain activation either. May 15, 2007. We have learned that the data being generated from the Swiss and Israeli MAPS-sponsored studies will be accepted by the US FDA.

Although these protocols do not need to be approved by the FDA to sociology essay gender, be conducted in their home countries (they have already been approved by their home country's regulatory agency equivalent to FDA and by local ethics committees), FDA review and approval enables us to pilote essayeur automobile, submit to FDA the data from these two studies as part of MAPS' Investigational New Drug (IND) application for MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in the treatment of PTSD. The data from these studies will be used to help negotiate with FDA regarding the design of larger Phase 3 studies intended to gather data to determine whether or not MDMA meets the gender roles requirements necessary to on migration, be approved as a legal prescription medicine. To learn more about the MAPS-sponsored study in Israel evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for subjects with war- and terrorism-related PTSD, the protocol is posted on the MAPS Web site. To learn more about the MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD study in Switzerland, the protocol is also posted on the MAPS Web site. May 13, 2007. Sociology Essay? Dr. Michael and Annie Mithoefer, the co-therapists for MAPS' landmark US MDMA/PTSD study, were in Norway recently attending a workshop by Dr. Edna Foa, an island man essay internationally-recognized expert in the treatment of PTSD.

The workshop was organized by Pal-Orjan Johansen, a Ph.D. candidate at the Trondheim Psychotherapy Research Program, Department of Psychology, The Norwegian University of sociology Science and Technology, and Teri Krebs, B.S., Program in Neuroscience, Boston University. While in Norway, Dr. Michael and Annie Mithoefer were also able to work with Pal and essay on migration in india Teri, who are conducting a MAPS-sponsored study reviewing audio and video recordings and transcripts of subjects in the Mithoefer's MDMA/PTSD research, in order to code and compare the psychological defense mechanisms used in both non-drug therapy sessions and in the experimental MDMA-assisted therapy sessions. This study is designed to sociology essay gender roles, identify process variables that may help explain how MDMA can be a useful adjunct to psychotherapy. Dr. Of Knowledge Questions? Michael and Annie Mithoefer were also able to sociology essay, discuss with Pal and Teri their MAPS-sponsored project using the man essay internet to search for reports of people with Asperger's (a form of high-functioning autism) who have found MDMA to be helpful in sociology gender their learning to cope more effectively in social situations. If we do find at least a handful of such reports, this could become another area of essay competition research, if funding becomes available. Drs. Roles? Mithoefer, Peter Oehen and Franz Vollenweider, will be presenting their MDMA/PTSD work at the European Conference on Traumatic Stress in on migration in india Croatia next month.

April 13, 2007. The MAPS-sponsored study in Israel evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for subjects with war-and terrorism-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has full government approval and is now in the subject recruitment stage. The study will be conducted at Beer Yakhov Mental Health Center, near Tel Aviv, under the direction of Principal Investigator Moshe Kotler, M.D., former chief psychiatrist of the Israeli Defense Forces. Roles? The therapeutic team has been expanded and will now include Sergio Marchevsky, M.D., in addition to theory questions, Rakefet Rodrigez, M.D., and Rael Strous, M.D. March 20, 2007. Time Magazine's annual What's Next issue ran a brief story entitled Taking a trip for your mental health, highlighting MAPS-sponsored MDMA, psilocybin, and ketamine research. March 17, 2007. An encouraging advancement is that we may be close to enrolling the final five subjects needed to complete Dr. Mithoefer's study.

We've focused more attention on recruitment with ads on various psychedelic-related websites and websites for PTSD support groups and currently have more than five subjects going through the screening process. Two of these potential subjects are Iraq War veterans. Gender Roles? Efficacy data at this stage is promising, so far making a strong case for continuing the research into FDA Phase 3 studies. March 11, 2007. After several years of effort, three rejections, and an appeal, the automobile Institutional Review Board (IRB) for Dr. Michael Mithoefer's flagship MAPS-sponsored US MDMA/PTSD study approved an amendment to the study's protocol. The IRB decided that it will not object to subjects speaking with the media and/or documentary filmmakers following completion of each subject's participation in the study. Sociology Essay Gender? The IRB originally insisted that patients not speak with the on migration media even after the entire study is complete. After years of careful consideration, the IRB has now determined that it has no jurisdiction to sociology essay roles, control subjects' decisions about whether or not to essay competition, speak to the media. Now that the media policy has been resolved, we are ready to move forward with our 12-month follow-up evaluations, which the IRB has previously approved.

March 10, 2007. Dr. Peter Oehen's MAPS-sponsored study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for subjects with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been making swift progress. Last Thursday, March 8, the second subject in Dr. Sociology Essay? Oehen's study underwent the competition second experimental treatment session.

The third subject will undergo the first experimental session later this week, and the fourth and 5th subjects have already been recruited. March 6, 2007. Peter Jennings' special ABC report entitled Ecstasy Rising is sociology essay gender roles available for viewing. Affirmative? This groundbreaking documentary discusses MDMA's cultural history, its use as a therapeutic tool, the government's criminalization and exaggeration of its risks, and MAPS' recent success with MDMA-assisted psychotherapy research. Regarding this clip we would like to give SPECIAL thanks to Nathan for ripping this footage and hosting it onsite ;-) Many gracious THANX. February 28, 2007. MAPS has committed $5,300 to Dr. Franz Vollenweider at the Psychiatric University Hospital in Zurich to co-sponsor a secondary study that will gather data for physiological assessments of subjects in Dr. Sociology Essay Roles? Oehen's MDMA/PTSD study.

The additional study will use several different measures to of knowledge essay questions, assess the psychophysiology of PTSD by using EEG/ERP and other biological measures such as heart rate variability (HRV) and pre-pulse inhibition (PPI). These parameters will be measured before and after the MDMA-assisted psychotherapy to sociology essay roles, allow researchers to evaluate changes in various areas of the brain and body. We expect that this additional neurophysiological and biological data will document the island man essay efficacy of essay gender roles MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. Theory Questions? The amendment to Dr. Oehen's protocol to include Dr. Essay Gender Roles? Vollenweider's research was previously approved by Dr. Oehen's Ethics Committee (IRB) in essay on migration in india September 2006. For more on this study, see Dr. Essay Roles? Oehen's article in the Fall 2006 MAPS Bulletin . February 26, 2007. The UK's Sky News published a short article describing Dr. Peter Oehen's MAPS -sponsored pilot study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for subjects with treatment-resistant post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

February 14, 2007. Swiss Radio International's Swissinfo published a brief original article describing Dr. Peter Oehen's ongoing MAPS-sponsored pilot study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for subjects with treatment-resistant post-traumatic stress disorder. February 9, 2007. The Data Safety Review Board (DSMB) for Dr. Michael Mithoefer's MAPS-sponsored FDA Phase 2 pilot study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for affirmative, subjects with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) met in late January for sociology gender roles, its final review, now that 15 out of 20 subjects have completed the experimental treatment. The DSMB recommended that the study continue without modification.

Ironically, the DSMB's only safety concern was that those subjects who received the pilote automobile placebo might see a substantial increase in PTSD symptoms after tapering off of psychiatric medications. The DSMB is essay gender roles comprised of an M.D., a Psy.D. and a Pharm.D. not otherwise involved in the study. On Migration In India? Efficacy data at this stage is promising, so far making a strong case for sociology gender roles, continuing the research into FDA Phase 3 studies. We're already looking beyond the next five subjects and the completion of this initial study, to future research protocols. January 23, 2007. Of Knowledge Essay? Slate published a positive description of MAPS' MDMA drug development efforts in a front page article entitled What a Long, Strange Trip It's Been: Ecstasy, the New Prescription Drug? January 12, 2007. MAPS has donated $3000 to Pal-Orjan Johansen and Terri Krebs for a project that will seek to use the internet to search for sociology essay, reports of on migration people with Asperger's (a form of high-functioning autism) who have found MDMA to roles, be helpful in their learning to cope more effectively in social situations. If we do find at least a handful of such reports, this could become another area of research, if funding becomes available.

MAPS also awarded another grant of $6000 to Pal-Orjan Johansen and theory Terri Krebs to sociology roles, expand their work reviewing transcripts of subjects in MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD research, in order to code and compare the psychological defense mechanisms used in man essay both non-drug therapy sessions and in the experimental MDMA-assisted therapy sessions. This study is sociology gender roles designed to identify process variables that may help explain how MDMA can be a useful adjunct to psychotherapy. January 6, 2007. College? From January 3-6, 2007, MAPS' clinical research team (Amy Emerson, Valerie Mojeiko, and Josh Sonstroem) was in Charleston, SC, conducting a monitoring inspection of Dr. Michael Mithoefer's MAPS-sponsored IRB-, DEA-, and US FDA-approved MDMA/PTSD study. On January 5, the 15th subject participated in roles her third and final experimental MDMA-assisted psychotherapy session.

On January 6, MAPS President Rick Doblin visited Charleston to photography essay's, meet with Dr. Michael and Annie Mithoefer and MAPS' clinical research team to review the data, which looks very promising. An additional $125,000 will be required to complete this study. December 14, 2006. Essay? In response to the sensationalistic and inaccurate recent news coverage of prospective Ecstasy user studies by Dutch researcher Dr. Maartje M. de Win, MAPS President Rick Doblin, Ph.D. Essayeur Automobile? wrote this open letter to Dr. de Win voicing his concerns, and essay gender MAPS Clinical Research Associate Ilsa Jerome, Ph.D., wrote a special report evaluating the media's claims and how they relate (or not) to pilote automobile, the actual data. December 8, 2006. While in Thailand to testify in sociology a medical MDMA trial, MAPS President Rick Doblin took the opportunity to do an pilote automobile interview with The Nation , Thailand's largest English-language daily newspaper. In the sociology essay roles interview, Doblin speculates on the possibility of conducting MDMA/PTSD research with tsunami victims and discusses MAPS' international psychedelic research agenda. November 24, 2006.

Dr. Peter Oehen conducted the college essay competition second experimental MDMA-assisted psychotherapy session with the second subject in his ongoing MAPS-sponsored MDMA-assisted therapy pilot study for subjects with treatment-resistant post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). According to Dr. Oehen, the subject delved into some challenging content, but the long-term results appear to be quite positive. She was confronted very hard with anxiety, negative emotions related to the sexual abuse and especially her isolation and avoidance of closeness, said Dr. Oehen. It was hard work for her in the following days but since then she has made substantial progress.

Therapist reports confirm that the subject confronted very hard with anxiety and with negative emotions related to their tramua - especially isolation and avoidance of closeness. This was followed by hard work for the subject during the following days but since then they have made substantial progress. October 23, 2006. The MDMA arrived on-site today at Harvard's McLean Hospital for Dr. John Halpern's MAPS-initiated study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for subjects with advanced-stage cancer suffering from end-of-life anxiety disorders. Essay Roles? MAPS has withdrawn from essay on migration, direct sponsorship of this study, but will still have access to the data generated by Dr. Halpern, as will any other organization that requests it. October 22, 2006. The MAPS clinical research monitoring team arrives in Israel today for the Site Initiation visit for the MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD pilot study at gender Beer Yakhov Mental Health Center in Tel Aviv, Israel, under the direction of Principal Investigator Moshe Kotler, former chief psychiatrist of the Israeli Defense Forces.

The study will focus on individuals suffering from war-related PTSD. The MAPS clincial monitoring team consists of MAPS President Rick Doblin, Ph.D., Clinical Research Associate Valerie Mojeiko, and volunteer clinical research expert Amy Emerson. Their job is to help the researchers prepare the study to theory questions, fit the strict guidelines necessary for the data generated to be eligible for consideration by the FDA and the European Medicines Agency. On October 25, Doblin and gender roles Lester Grinspoon, M.D., will join Israeli and Palestinian drug policy experts in Jerusalem to talk at photography essay's the first Arab-Israeli Joint Conference on Peace and sociology Drug Policy, sponsored by the Ale-Yarok (Green-Leaf) Party. The conference will focus on issues related to island, the cultural impacts of marijuana, its regulation, and its medical uses and research. While in Israel, MAPS staffers Rick Doblin and Valerie Mojeiko will also be conducting a Psychedelic Emergency Services training seminar for a team of volunteers organizing a rave near the Dead Sea. October 19, 2006. Principal Investigator Peter Oehen, M.D., officially initiated the Swiss MAPS-sponsored pilot study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for subjects with treatment-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Today, Dr.

Oehen conducted the first experimental MDMA session with the first subject. Congratulations, Dr. Oehen! September 13, 2006. Essay Gender? Dr.

Michael Mithoefer treated the 13th subject with a third MDMA-assisted psychotherapy session today in his MAPS-sponsored FDA Phase II pilot study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for individuals with treatment-resistant post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The 16th patient out of photography 20 was also just screened and roles admitted to the study earlier this week. September 12, 2006. Dr. Affirmative Essay? Peter Oehen's MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD protocol has full government approval and the first subject began the screening process last week. The Ethics Committee (the Swiss IRB equivalent, which previously approved Dr. Oehen's MDMA/PTSD protocol) met on September 7 to sociology gender roles, review an addendum to the protocol, and college we just learned today, September 12, that the IRB has granted approval, meaning that the study can now officially be initiated!

The addendum is for an associated study by Dr. Franz Vollenweider, University of Zurich, that will examine subjects before and after treatment with MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. Dr. Vollenweider is going to measure several physiological factors that have been associated with PTSD (startle response, heart rate reactivity) as well as various EEG parameters to essay gender roles, see if the MDMA-assisted psychotherapy results in any changes in these measures. The first applicant for 2011, the study will be administered baseline CAPS and PDS tomorrow, and, now that we have full approval, we hope to report shortly that the first subject has been treated with MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. August 21, 2006.

The Norwegian Research Council website recently posted Ecstasy: Historien Starter (article in gender roles PDF format) (English translation Ecstasy; The History Begins), an article by theory essay, Pål-Ørjan Johansen that discusses the scheduling history, the research controversies, and new research into the therapeutic potential of MDMA. August 20, 2006. VG, one of the essay roles largest Norwegian newspapers, published a very positive piece on MDMA psychotherapy research that includes interviews with Charles Grob, M.D., and Pål-Ørjan Johansen, Ph.D. (View PDF of article). August 15, 2006. On Migration In India? In their Newsdesk section, the journal Lancet Neurology published Hallucinogen Research Inspires Neurotheology, a report on developments in research with psychedelic compounds, such as ketamine or psilocybin. Roles? The piece contains comments from Roland Griffiths, John Halpern and Deborah Mash. August 5, 2006. The Israeli Import Permit and the Swiss Export Permit have now been approved. On Thursday, August 3rd, in the midst of pilote war, about 5 grams of sociology MDMA arrived in Israel for MAPS' MDMA/PTSD study, imported into Israel from Switzerland. This study has full government approval and will be initiated in Fall 2006.

July 21, 2006. Dr. Essay? Michael and Annie Mithoefer treated the 13th subject with the second experimental MDMA/placebo session in their MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD trial today. Dr. Mithoefer described it as impressive. June 17, 2006. Switzerland's DEA equivalent, the BAG, has officially approved Dr.

Peter Oehen's MAPS-sponsored study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy as a treatment for subjects suffering from treatment-resistant Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Permission from essay gender roles, BAG was the man essay final regulatory hurdle, since Dr. Oehen has already received approval from the Ethics Committee (Switzerland's IRB equivalent) and SwissMedic (Switzerland's FDA equivalent). June 16, 2006. Dr. Michael Mithoefer initiated the sociology essay first experimental MDMA-assisted psychotherapy session with the 13th subject out of affirmative 20 in his MAPS-sponsored FDA Phase II pilot study. This subject was the first to essay roles, receive supplemental dosing of half the island initial amount of MDMA administered 2 to 2.5 hours after the initial dose in order to prolong the plateau of MDMA's therapeutic effectiveness, a change recently approved by Dr.

Mithoefer's Istitutional Review Board (IRB), the Food and sociology roles Drug Administration (FDA), and the Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB). The supplemental dose did not seem to on migration, intensify the already strongly therapeutic experience but it did prolong the period of essay roles maximum therapeutic effect for at essay least 90 minutes. This appeared to be very useful. We were also happy to see that, as expected, there was no problem with vital signs. June 7, 2006. Switzerland's FDA equivalent, SwissMedic, has now fully approved Dr. Peter Oehen's MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD study. The protocol design had already been approved, and earlier this week we received approval for sociology essay gender roles, the source of the essay MDMA itself, which MAPS is purchasing from sociology gender, a Swiss manufacturer. Now that Dr.

Oehen has received permission from SwissMedic and an Ethics Committee (the Swiss IRB equivalent), the only regulatory hurdle remaining is licensing from BAG, the Swiss DEA equivalent, which is essayeur expected within a month. Initiation of Dr. Essay Roles? Oehen's study will take place shortly thereafter. Approval from SwissMedic of the source of the MDMA for the Swiss MDMA/PTSD study will now enable MAPS to move forward with the export of MDMA from essayeur automobile, Switzerland to Israel. The import/export of the sociology essay gender roles MDMA is the last regulatory step in the initiation of affirmative essay Dr. Moshe Kotler's MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD research at sociology gender Beer Yaakov Mental Health Center in Tel Aviv, in subjects with war and terrorism-related PTSD. June 4, 2006.

Dr. Michael Mithoefer has received Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval for competition, several key changes that FDA had recently approved to his MAPS-sponsored study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy as a treatment for PTSD. The changes include (1) adding a third experimental session to the two that are currently included in the protocol to test whether a third session adds significantly to the therapeutic process, (2) providing supplemental dosing of half the initial amount of MDMA administered 2 to 2.5 hours after the initial dose in order to prolong the plateau of essay roles MDMA's therapeutic effectiveness, and (3) doing without an affirmative essay ER doctor on roles, standby in the next room since Dr. Mithoefer has become a board-certified ER doctor as well as a board-certified psychiatrist. Now that the island Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB), FDA, and IRB have all approved these changes to our protocol, they will be implemented for the study's remaining eight subjects. May 15, 2006. The Boston Globe published A Good Death, an article that discussess the resurgence of interest in studying MDMA and psychedelic drugs to help people with cancer deal with anxiety and pain. The piece describes research MAPS helped design and locate funding for that will look at the potential therapeutic benefits of sociology essay roles MDMA in people who are anxious as a result of advanced stage cancer. The latest MAPS Bulletin contains an essay's article about the woman described in this article who used MDMA to essay gender roles, treat cancer-related pain and anxiety.

A PDF of the this piece is now available.. April 14, 2006. A recently published editorial in the Lancet supports research into the potential therapeutic benefits of psychedelic drugs and calls for a new legal structure that makes this research easier and less burdensome to on migration, conduct. Sociology? The Lancet editorial was likely inspired by a commentary published in the British Journal of Psychiatry. This editorial was then covered by the British newspaper, the Guardian. April 5, 2006. In some fantastic news, philanthropist Peter Lewis has agreed to donate $250,000 directly to Harvard Medical School-affiliated McLean Hospital to man essay, fund the costs of Dr. John Halpern's study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with anxiety associated with advanced-stage cancer. Dr.

Halpern's MDMA/cancer anxiety study is already fully approved by the FDA, DEA, two Institutional Review Boards (IRB's, at Lahey Clinic and McLean Hospital) and gender the Massachusetts Dept. of Public Health. Now that the study is fully funded, Dr. Halpern is preparing to initiate the study and hopes to enroll the first subject within the next several months. As we reported in the last email update, MAPS has withdrawn from direct sponsorship of this study. Essayeur Automobile? The McLean Hospital administration felt that MAPS long-term advocacy for sociology gender, MDMA psychotherapy research and general opposition to affirmative essay, Prohibition would cause the sociology gender results of the pilote study to be challenged as biased if MAPS were to sociology essay gender, sponsor the study and they did not want McLean Hospital to be involved in college essay a study funded by MAPS. Therefore, we decided that it would be best for MAPS to offer to roles, withdraw from further direct financial sponsorship of Dr.

Halperns research so that the study, which many people labored so long to start, could proceed. Sacrifices sometimes need to be made. In this case, we decided that the benefits of the study moving forward substantially outweigh MAPS' withdrawal from essayeur automobile, direct sponsorship. MAPS will still have access to the data generated by Dr. Essay Gender? Halpern, as will any other organization that requests it. March 7, 2006. The DEA has, after over one year, issued a license for Dr. John Halpern's study of essay competition MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with anxiety associated with advanced-stage cancer. Sociology Essay? The final regulatory approval has thus been obtained. Additional approvals have already been received from two Institutional Review Boards (IRB-McLean and Lahey Hospitals) as well as the photography essay's Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Sociology Essay? MAPS has donated over theory of knowledge essay questions 2011 $94,000 to McLean Hospital over the last five years in an effort to initiate the evaluation of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy.

One fruit of this support has been Dr. Halpern's $1.8 million grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) for a methodologically state-of-the art study started with MAPS funding of the sociology gender roles neurocognitive consequences of the use of Ecstasy. Now that the theory of knowledge 2011 MDMA/cancer anxiety study is fully approved, MAPS is withdrawing from any further financial sponsorship. MAPS, independent of McLean and Dr. Halpern, still hopes to assist with seeking donors interested in now donating directly to McLean Hospital. We believe that this financial distance from MAPS, and more so the rigor of the methodological design of the study itself, will enable the results of the study to be viewed by skeptics as more objective.

If the results of the pilot study are promising, MAPS will again explore options for the support of roles research at McLean Hospital. February 6, 2006. MAPS' Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) met to review records for the six new subjects who have enrolled since their last meeting in photography essay's Dr. Michael Mithoefer's study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy as a treatment for PTSD. With data from a total of eleven subjects before them, the DSMB reported that they did not have any concerns about the safety of the study, and recommended that it continue without modification. The DSMB is comprised of an M.D., a Psy.D., and a Pharm.D. not otherwise involved in the study. Dr. Mithoefer has successfully treated 11 out of an eventual 20 subjects, and is currently treating the twelfth. Sociology Essay Roles? The DSMB also reviewed and essay approved three protocol changes that Dr. Gender Roles? Mithoefer and MAPS will initially submit to FDA and then, if approved, to affirmative, our Institutional Review Board (IRB).

Dr. Mithoefer is seeking permission to: 1) Increase the number of MDMA experimental sessions from two to three, to essay roles, evaluate whether this extra session will enable subjects to make more therapeutic progress. 2) Administer supplemental doses of 1/2 the initial dose of MDMA 2 to 2 1/2 hours after the initial dose, in theory essay order to prolong the relatively short plateau of MDMA's full therapeutic effectiveness. 3) Since Dr. Mithoefer has recently renewed his Board certification in ER medicine, we have asked to do without the additional Board-certified ER doctor sitting in the next room. In comparison, Dr.

Peter Oehen's study in Switzerland has been designed and approved for three MDMA experimental sessions and the use of supplemental doses. Dr. Kotler's study in Israel has been designed and approved with supplemental dosing but just two MDMA experimental sessions. January 25, 2006. An article in the New Zealand Herald about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in veterans mentions the sociology essay use of MDMA for PTSD but makes some incorrect claims. A letter to the editor from Rick Doblin corrects the mistakes. This article demonstrates that there is a widely perceived need for more effective treatments for PTSD and that the MDMA research is affirmative essay increasingly accepted as a necessary and essay roles not very controversial effort. December 27, 2005. Theory Of Knowledge Questions? An article in the Washington Post, A Political Debate On Stress Disorde, by Shankar Vedantam, reports that in 2004 the US Veterans Affairs Department spent $4.3 billion on PTSD benefit payments to a total of sociology essay 215,871 veterans.

If the results of the second half of our MDMA/PTSD study are as promising as the results of the first half, we will have data suggesting that it would be financially wise for the VA to fund the entire $5 million cost of MAPS' Phase III studies to pilote essayeur, evaluate whether MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for PTSD should become approved by the FDA as a legally-available treatment for PTSD. MAPS received word from Dr. Peter Oehen, Principal Investigator of the Swiss MDMA/PTSD pilot study cosponsored by MAPS and the Swiss Association for sociology roles, Psycholytic Therapy, that the final written approval from the ethic committee arrived today. Dr. Oehen will now submit the protocol and the other documents to college essay competition, Swissmedic, for a review process that we expect will take a month or two. December 20, 2005. Dr. Michael Mithoefer, Principal Investigator of the MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD psychotherapy study in Charleston, South Carolina, filed an Annual Status Report with his Institutional Review Board (IRB).

There have been no drug-related Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) and the results on treatment efficacy are promising. November 15, 2005. An excellent roundtable discussion about psychedelics and Judaism was published in Jewish Currents, published by the Association for Promotion of sociology essay gender roles Jewish Secularism, Inc. The article is affirmative entitled, Just Say Maybe- Psychedelic Drugs, Healing and Politics: An Interview with Four Jewish Researchers (Rick Doblin, Charlie Grob, Julie Holland, Howard Lotsof). November 11, 2005. The Good Drugs Guide Radio show, out of England, broadcast a show entitled,The State of Ecstasy. The show is sociology essay gender described as follows, It's ten years since the death of on migration in india Leah Betts, a teenager who died after taking a single tablet of ecstasy, also known as MDMA. Her tragic death triggered a huge backlash against the drug here in the UK. Even so, 700,000 people still take E every week in this country.

So what have we learnt about ecstasy in the last decade? Do the stories of terrible comedowns, brains like swiss cheese, and instant death have any credibility? Could MDMA really become a prescription drug? And has the essay music got any better? We find out. Guests include Dr Julie Holland, author of Ecstasy The Complete Guide, Rick Doblin, president of MAPS.org, and man essay Mike Linnell of drug charity Lifeline. The show also uses clips from the excellent ABC documentary, Ecstasy Rising. MAPS received word that the Israeli Ministry of Health has approved our MDMA/PTSD pilot study!! One condition was that the Israeli Anti-Drug Authority write a letter formally indicating support for the protocol, which the Israeli Anti-Drug Authority has done. Now we need to bring the Israeli therapeutic team to sociology gender, the US to observe an MDMA/PTSD session conducted by Dr. Michael and Annie Mithoefer and we need to bring MAPS Clinical Research Monitoring Team to Israel, to set up the Case Report Forms and the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs).

Plus we need to arrange to export MDMA to Israel for the study. Once these steps have all been accomplished, the essay on migration study itself can begin enrolling subjects. We're anticipating that the study can begin in March 2006. November 8, 2005. Dr. Michael Mithoefer received the disappointing news that the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has rejected our grant application seeking $125,000 over two years for the development of a treatment manual for the use of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

MAPS' grant application was not scored (it was considered in the bottom half of all applications). This rejection isn't really surprising since the last time NIMH gave a grant for anything to do with psychedelic psychotherapy was over 30 years ago, with all NIMH intramural psychedelic psychotherapy research stopping in 1967. MAPS invested $2,768 in the NIMH grant application, but the money is essay roles not wasted. We have gained a better understanding of what it will take to affirmative essay, complete the treatment manual that we have already begun to develop and we now can say that we have indeed tried to sociology essay roles, obtain funding from NIMH. Maybe once we complete the initial pilot study, we can submit the results to NIMH and man essay try again to obtain support. It has been reported that in 2004, the Veterans Affairs Department (VA) spent $4.3 billion on PTSD disability payments! In 2006, the sociology essay roles VA requested $2.2 billion for mental health services. College Essay? Once we have completed our initial pilot study, we may have a better chance of obtaining some federal funding for MDMA/PTSD research. November 7, 2005. The Daily Texan, the newspaper of the University of Texas at sociology essay roles Austin, published a letter about, The harms of MDMA that presented misleading information about MAPS' MDMA research projects. The letter critiqued a previous column entitled, Debunking drug folklore, MAPS President Rick Doblin replied to correct the record.

While taking time to write to a student newspaper may not at island first glance represent a wise use of MAPS staff time, in the age of Google, even student letters can be read by a large number of people, especially when the topic is discussed repeatedly in the student newspaper. Sociology Essay? Indeed, the Daily Texan also published a more reasonable letter, The harm of Ecstacy, II. Affirmative? While MAPS concentrates on scientific research, our educational mission is also of major importance. October 21, 2005. An article in the UCLA Daily Bruin discusses animal rights protesters objecting to a proposed study in gender primates, Making Connections: MDMA Research on of knowledge, the Mechanisms of Affiliation and Trust. The article mentions that this research was submitted for funding to MAPS, by Anthropology Professor Alan Page Fiske, who is quoted as saying, The biggest problems we have in the world are people not trusting each other and not feeling a solidarity (and) feeling distant, Fiske said. If we could understand the basis of essay roles compassion and caring, that's about the most important thing human and biological sciences could do.

A MAPS Bulletin article about Prof. Fiske's research can be found here. Pilote Automobile? At present, there is no funding for gender, the study. Briefly stated, MAPS has not funded animal research for about ten years but is not categorically opposed to doing so if the research is of sufficient importance. MAPS considers Prof. Island? Fiske's proposed research to be sufficiently important to be worthy of being conducted but the information it would generate isn't essential for sociology gender, MAPS' program of research intended to college competition, develop MDMA into an FDA-approved prescription medication. MAPS' top priority is our human studies into the therapeutic use of MDMA. These studies require substantial resources so our intention is to conduct further research in animals only sociology essay roles when required by FDA.

October 14, 2005. A DEA Field Investigator came to McLean Hospital to test the alarms on affirmative essay, the safes at the Pharmacy, where the sociology essay gender roughly 4 grams of MDMA will be stored for the MAPS-sponsored MDMA/cancer anxiety study. Essay? Everything seemed to sociology roles, be in order and theory essay questions 2011 the DEA investigator stated that his report should get processed within one month. We're cautiously optimistic we'll have the essay roles final approvals before the end of 2005. October 8, 2005. Dr.med. Peter Oehen submits an MDMA/PTSD protocol for review to a Swiss ethics committee, for a pilot study co-sponsored by MAPS and the Swiss Association for Psycholytic Therapy (SAePT). This study will involve three experimental sessions instead of two and will use supplemental dosing 2 1/2 hours after the initial dose. August 2, 2005. Ironically, after NIDA-funded researchers Drs.

McCann and Ricaurte claimed that MDMA damaged dopamine neurons and could cause Parkinson's disease, a claim that they later had to retract, new research conducted at Duke University Medical Center has shown that MDMA is the most effective of 60 drugs tested in reversing the essayeur symptoms of Parkinson's disease! This research was discussed in an article in News-Medical.Net; note also a brief commentary on this and roles other related research into MDMA as an anti-Parkinson's disease treatment. July 22, 2005. The 10th subject had her 2nd experimental session, which went well. Theory Essay Questions 2011? Once she completes her final follow-up evaluation in about two months, we will have completed half of Stage 1 of the gender roles study. We'll then conduct a preliminary data analysis and submit it to MAPS' Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) for review. There have been no Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) during the first half of our study and the outcome data looks promising. Stage 2 is for those subjects who received placebo and wish to reenroll in the study to receive MDMA open-label. The second subject in Stage 2 is scheduled to receive her second MDMA session on Monday, August 1. This session will also be used as a training session for Drs.

Halpern and Naidoo from affirmative essay, Harvard Medical School. They have the sociology subject's permission to observe in order to help them prepare to conduct their MAPS-sponsored study of MDMA in subjects with anxiety associated with advanced-stage cancer. Theory Essay? We'll still waiting on DEA to issue a Schedule I license before this study can begin. July 19, 2005. Sociology Essay Gender? Australia's Herald Sun publishes Pill poison, an article about the proliferation of of ecstasy dealing, consumption, and adulteration in the nation's most populated region.

The link also includes and editorial from the Herald Sun demanding that the community take responsibility for the nation's drug problems. July 18, 2005. Austrailia's United Press runs Dealers lacing ecstasy with other drugs, reporting on the widespread adulteration of ecstasy tablets throughout the country. July 7, 2005. Essay's? The IRB approved the sociology gender requested changes, conditional to accepting changes in the consent documents. Dr. Mithoefer accepted all changes the IRB recommended.

Now the investigators can continue to plan and carry out treatment manual development. July 1, 2005. Man Essay? A letter from the National Institute of sociology essay Mental Health (NIMH) arrived at MAPS today, saying that our grant application, Treatment Manual Development for MDMA-Assisted Therapy, has been received and assigned to a Scientific Review Group (SRG). The initial peer review should be completed by the end of November 2005, with funding decisions made in January 2006 after the meeting of the appropriate National Advisory Group. Photography Essay's? MAPS' grant application can be found at: http://www.maps.org/mdma/ptsd_study/grant0605/ June 23, 2005. Michael Mithoefer submitted proposed changes to the MDMA/PTSD, including provisions for videotaping all psychotherapy sessions, a step needed for developing a treatment manual for MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in sociology essay gender people with PTSD, as needed to pilote automobile, carry out the work proposed in the grant application submitted to NIMH. June 17, 2005. Sociology Essay? UK News site Guardian Unlimited ran this story about Alexander Shulgin, his history as a pharmacologist, and the repercussions of his 1965 synthesis of MDMA. June 6, 2005. The study protocol for the MDMA/PTSD study to take place in Israel was reviewed and approved by the Beer Yaakov Medical Center ethics committee (IRB).

The study has now been sent to the Israeli national ethics committee. If it is approved by the national ethics committe, it will then be reviewed by of knowledge essay questions, the Ministry of Health. May 31, 2005. Michael Mithoefer MD submitted a grant application to NIMH for developing a treatment manual of MDMA-assisted therapy for sociology essay gender, PTSD. May 23, 2005. Photography Essay's? Online Publication Nursing Spectrum puts forth an article discussing the Harvard study of MDMA psychotherapy for treatment of essay roles anxiety associated with terminal cancer. Author Lisette Hilton quotes Dr. John Halpern that the benefits of this therapy would have greater application for nurses who tend to essay's, dying patients on a daily basis than for the physicians who prescribe the therapy. The CQ (Congressional Quarterly) Weekly published an excellent cover story by Tim Starks, entitled New Prescriptions for gender roles, War Trauma.

The article interviews Dr. Michael Mithoefer and discusses the essay MAPS-sponsored study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in essay roles the treatment of PTSD. May 19, 2005. Psychology Today offers two articles about psychedelic research constraints in the United States, one from 2005 and the other from 1994. Compare what 11 years can do!

May 18, 2005. Join Together, a drug abuse prevention organization, ran a news summary regarding the recent St. Petersburg Times article on photography essay's, the MDMA research MAPS sponsors. May 16, 2005. Essay Gender? Canadian newspaper Northern Life ran an article in the online police beat section by Jason Thompson in which Dr. Man Essay? Stephen Kish of the Northern Ontario School of Medicine, among others, discuss problems and sociology essay potential of MDMA use. May 12, 2005. Rick Doblin appeared on Joe Scarborough's MSNBC segment yesterday. Here is a transcript as well as a video of the essay in india interview. May 11, 2005.

Dr. Meg Jordan, Global Medicine Hunter, puts out a podcast about MAPS' research into essay roles the use of MDMA in the treatment of postraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Iraq War vets, and about her work with the pilote essayeur automobile therapeutic use of MDMA in the late 1970s! May 9, 2005. The International edition of essay gender roles Newsweek published A Psychedelic Cure, a piece similar to the a piece published last week in the domestic edition, but with greater discussion of proposed studies of pilote MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in Spain and roles Israel.. The St. Petersburg Times ran a front page article,Party pill gets tryout in therapy written by Janet Zink, offering reporting on MAPS' mission of decriminizaling the use of MDMA for therapeutic purposes.

May 2, 2005. Newsweek Magazine runs a story on MDMA research by Eve Conant, Ecstasy: A Possible New Role for A Banned Club Drug. The changing economics of Ecstasy is leading a rising number of youths to turn to cheaper, more available drugs. Among them: addictive prescription painkillers such as OxyContin and pilote automobile Vicodin, inhalants such as paint thinner, and sociology methamphetamines. Two recent surveys said OxyContin and Vicodin had passed Ecstasy in popularity among teens. And this is considered progress! comments Rick Doblin, MAPS President. April 11, 2005. The LA Times published, Ecstasy's Good Side, reporting on MDMA/cancer anxiety study to be conducted by John Halpern MD, and discussed related studies (such as the study of psilocybin in people wiht cancer-related anxiety conducted by essay on migration, Charles Grob MD, and sociology the ongoing study of MDMA in people with PTSD. Pilote? Note that the article erroneously reports on the location of the last study, which is at the offices of sociology essay roles Michael Mithoefer MD, and not at the Medical University of South Carolina. March 25, 2005. The largest Israeli newspaper, Yediot Ahronot, published a favorable article about island man essay, MAPS' Israeli conference, which took place the sociology essay gender roles day before, and the use of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

The article was accompanied by an incredible graphic of college essay competition a drowning man holding on to a life preserver that was actually an Ecstasy pill with a smiling face. March 24, 2005. MAPS sponsored a very successful conference in sociology gender roles Israel on research with MDMA, ibogaine and marijuana for the Israeli Ministry of photography Health, the Israeli Society of Addiction Medicine, and representatives from the Israeli Anti-Drug Authority. The conference was intended to educate Israeli regulators and researchers about MAPS' proposed MDMA/PTSD pilot study that we're trying to sponsor in sociology Israel, under the direction of affirmative essay Dr. Sociology Essay Roles? Moshe Kotler, Chair, Department of Psychiatry, Tel Aviv University, Sackler School of Medicine. After the conference, Dr.

Kotler said that he was ready to submit our draft protocol to affirmative, the ethics committee for review. March 10, 2005. Sociology Roles? Today the Drug Enforcement Administration will visit Dr. John Halpern of affirmative essay Harvard Medical School's McLean Hospital as a routine procedure before issuing his Schedule I license. Once Dr.

Halpern has received his license, the sociology MAPS-funded study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety in advanced cancer patients can begin. March 8, 2005. The NPR show, To the Point, hosted by Warren Olney, discussed Dr. Photography? Michael Mithoefer's MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD study and sociology FDA's newly approved expansion of the study to include subjects with war-related PTSD. Guests include Dr. Andrew Pomeranz (PTSD therapist), Dr. Essay In India? Michael Mithoefer, Rick Doblin, Ph.D. and Robert Dupont, Ph.D. (first Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse). Sociology Gender Roles? The story runs from 23:35-50:52.

The Scientist published Renewed Faith in Ecstasy, a brief article on the recent history and progress of MDMA research, and pilote automobile featuring quotes from sociology roles, Rick Doblin. March 4, 2005. BBC On-Line published an article describing recently published findings that ecstasy use was associated with increased self-reported symptoms of depression, but only in people who have a certain form of the serotonin transporter gene. Theory Of Knowledge Essay Questions? You can also read a commentary on the paper. February 26, 2005. Essay Roles? New Scientist published a lengthy and extensive overview of current and planned research into the medical or psychiatric benefits of psychedelic substances, including MDMA, psilocybin, LSD, ketamine and ibogaine, and covernig a wide array of MAPS-supported and Heffter Institute supported studies.. The article contains a history of medical research with psychedelics. February 23, 2005. The Boston Globe published a lengthy piece on the MDMA/cancer anxiety study that will take place at on migration in india Harvard University's McLean Hospital. The piece features quotes from Halpern and from Rick Doblin. National Public Radio (NPR)'s All Things Considered aired an interview of John Halpern, who spoke about the MDMA/cancer anxiety study.

You can hear a recording of the sociology essay gender interview on the NPR website or you can read the transcripts of the interview. ABC World News Tonight briefly reported on the MDMA/cancer anxiety study to essay on migration in india, be conducted by John Halpern MD. February 17, 2005. The Guardian published an extensive discussion of current and planned research into the therapeutic uses of MDMA and essay roles psychedelic drugs. The article quotes John Halpern, Rick Doblin and Michael Mithoefer, and covers a surprising breadth of current and planned research in this area. The Guardian published another report specifically noting the recent expansion of the MDMA/PTSD study to essay competition, now accept people with combat-related PTSD. The report features quotes from Michael Mithoefer, the prinicpal investigator. This is not a new study specifically looking at combat stress.

Rather, the ongoing study is sociology now no longer restricted to people with crime-related PTSD. The German newspaper Der Spiegel published a report on pilote, the recent expansion of the MDMA/PTSD study to include people with combat-related PTPSD that is even more muddled than the gender roles report from the Guardian, above. Not only does this report suggest that a new investigation is underway, but that the automobile US military is involved in this study. As already noted, there is no new study specifically studying MDMA-assisted therapy in essay people with combat-related PTSD, and the military has not been involved in any step of this research so far. February 16, 2005. The January issue of the essayeur Brazilian science magazine Galileu published Da Balada Para o Diva,, an article in Portugese by Juliana Tiraboschi about research into the potentially therapeutic uses of sociology essay MDMA.. The paper discusses the MDMA/PTSD study and quotes MAPS president Rick Doblin. You can also read a PDF version of the article. Dr. Michael Mithoefer and Annie Mithoefer were guests on essayeur, Kathleen Brooks' radio show on World Talk Radio, Darkness to Light: Breaking the Conspiracy of Silence, for an hour-long discussion of their MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD study.

February 4, 2005. The UCLA newspaper the Daily Bruin featured a report on gender, Charles Grob's research on pilote essayeur, psilocybin in people with cancer experiencing anxiety relating to their illness. The piece quoted Grob and Dr. John Halpern, the principal investigator of the sociology essay roles MAPS-sponsored study of MDMA in people with cancer-related anxiety. Today Michael and Ann Mithoefer performed the first experimental (MDMA or placebo) session for the sixth participant enrolled in the study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in people with PTSD. On Migration? If all goes well, the next experimental session will occur in essay three to five weeks. January 30, 2005. January 30, 2005. The New York Times Sunday Magazine published a profile of psychedelic chemist, Sasha Shulgin, that highlighted the approval of essay in india MDMA research at Harvard sponsored by MAPS (though MAPS was not mentioned). The article includes a quote from Dr.

Steve Hyman, Harvard Provost and ex-Director of the National Institute of roles Mental Health, saying that he is skeptical whether MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with anxiety associated with advanced-stage cancer will actually prove beneficial but that he thinks the research should go forward. The ghost of Timothy Leary has now definitely be laid to rest at Harvard. Now it's up to on migration, us to prove what we have been saying for sociology essay roles, decades, that MDMA and other psychedelics have remarkable healing potentials. Photography? As the saying goes, Beware what you wish for. The challenge of essay gender roles proving the safety and theory essay questions 2011 efficacy of psychedelic psychotherapy is sociology gender roles formidable, but definitely a goal worth the decades of essay's prior and future work. January 21, 2005. Psychiatry News (a publication of the American Psychiatric Association) reported on sociology essay roles, the proposed MDMA/cancer anxiety study, with quotes from principal investigator John Halpern MD.. January 16, 2005. The Boston Globe published an article contrasting FDA approval of MAPS' study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with anxiety associated with advanced-stage cancer with DEA rejection of Prof.

Lyle Craker's MAPS-sponsored application for a license to establish a facility to produce marijuana for federally-approved research. The Week in essayeur automobile Review section of the Sunday New York Times had a thoughtful but rather snide and inaccurate article on the research into the use of MDMA and psilocybin in the treatment of sociology roles anxiety associated with advanced cancer. Prof. Mark Kleiman criticizes a NYTimes article on the use of psychedelics in treating anxiety in subjects with advanced-stage cancer. Pilote? He notes the flawed central assumption of the article which is that all drugs are alike, and that drugs have the property of dulling perception and cognition, making people less present to what is happening to them. January 14, 2005. Dr.

John Halpern submitted his application today to DEA for a Schedule I license, the final regulatory approval required before we can begin the MDMA/cancer anxiety study. Dr. Halpern has already received his State Schedule I license. January 8, 2005. Dr. John Halpern is the guest on C-SPAN's Washington Journal for a live, half-hour national call-in show focused on Dr. Halpern's MAPS-sponsored study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with anxiety associated with advanced-stage cancer. January 7, 2005. The Boston Herald published a short piece describing the sociology essay gender MDMA /cancer anxiety study, quoting primary investigator John Halpern and MAPS President Rick Doblin. January 6, 2005. MAPS donated $26,616 to McLean Hospital, Harvard University, for Dr.

John Halpern's MAPS-sponsored study of the use of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with anxiety associated with advanced-stage cancer. This represents the first payment in what we expect will total $250,000 for theory essay 2011, this study. The approval of this study by McLean Hospital (where the MDMA-assisted psychotherapy will take place), the Lahey Clinic (where the patients receive primary care for gender, their cancer), and island man essay the FDA, represents a triumph of hope over fear, hope for essay, the too-long obstructed promise of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy v. fear of the risks of MDMA exaggerated by anti-drug crusaders and island man essay scientists for their own ends. Roles? At a time when the US government has placed all its eggs in the fear basket (war, terrorism, drugs, financial ruin of Social Security, gay marriage, etc., etc.), the remarkably widespread media reporting of college essay FDA's approval of psychedelic research again at essay gender Harvard after 40 years shows that people are eager for balance, for hopeful news. Affirmative? It's now clear that the American public would welcome whatever help can be provided in facing directly life's final challenge, to die gracefully and in peace, even if such help comes from a previously demonized and criminalized substance also used by young people seeking pleasure. January 5, 2005. The Harvard Crimson reported on the MDMA/cancer anxiety study that will be taking place at McLean Hospital. Principal Investigator John Halpern MD is quoted, as well as MAPS President Rick Doblin PhD. The on-line version of this article has a link to a letter written by Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert (Ram Dass) and published in the Crimson in gender 1962. December 31, 2004.

An amazing editorial, Examining Ecstasy, about essay, FDA approval of MAPS' MDMA/cancer anxiety study, was published today in the Ottawa Citizen. MAPS' Harvard study is considered restrained and Charles Grob is chastised for speaking of potential spiritual benefits! December 30, 2004. An article in The Australian reports on the FDA approval of MAPS' MDMA/cancer anxiety study and essay quotes Australian Medical Association Queensland public health committee chairwoman Jeanette Tait as saying, The medical community would look askance at island man essay this type of essay roles trial, except that it is being conducted by such a respected body, she said. As it is such a fairly substantial body doing the trial, especially with FDA approval, I think the results will be very interesting.

There's so much to be wary about illicit drugs and their use. Dr. Tait's comments reaffirm the value of MAPS' efforts to conduct MDMA psychotherapy research at Harvard, since the research is photography being taken more seriously as a result of where it is being conducted. December 29, 2004. Some of the most important Spanish newspapers and journals broke the news about the MDMA/cancer anxiety study, echoing the sociology roles news report from the essay Washington Post. These reports are apparently very favorable. These include EE UU ensaya el uso de éxtasis en enfermos de cancer terminal (El País, December 28, PDF), Cientficos de EE UU investigarn el uso del 'éxtasis' en enfermos terminales (El Correo Digital, December 29, PDF) and EEUU aprueba un estudio sobre el uso psiquitrico del 'éxtasis' (El Mundo, December 28, PDF). December 27, 2004. Sociology Essay Gender Roles? Excellent Washington Post article by Rick Weiss about FDA approval of pilote essayeur automobile MDMA/cancer anxiety research and general renewal of research into the therapeutic potential of MDMA and sociology essay gender psychedelic compounds. [ Also see scans of the article. ] The AP Wire Service published a report on the recent FDA approval of the MDMA/cancer anxiety study, with quotes from principal investigator John Halpern MD. December 17, 2004. The FDA approved John Halpern's MDMA/cancer anxiety study today.

November 19, 2004. A fateful step has been taken. Today, MAPS submitted Dr. Photography? John Halpern's MDMA/cancer anxiety protocol and associated documents to sociology gender roles, the FDA. FDA should receive the protocol Monday, November 22 and will then have 30 days from that point to man essay, review it. FDA will either approve the protocol or place it on clinical hold pending resolution of any issues FDA felt it appropriate to raise. Sociology Essay Roles? If approved by FDA, the last remaining major hurdle before the of knowledge questions study can start will be Dr.

Halpern's need to gender roles, obtain a DEA Schedule 1 license to dispense the MDMA to be used in the study. After FDA approval has taken place, we feel that DEA will most likely issue the license sooner rather than later, probably voluntarily. DEA cooperation will be due to theory essay 2011, the compelling nature of this study, the amount of sociology essay roles existing interest and support, the very low risk of diversion since there are no take-home doses, and, most importantly, the regulatory limits on the factors that DEA can use to essay on migration, evaluate applications for Schedule I licenses to conduct FDA-approved research. If fully approved, this study will become the first psychedelic research to take place at Harvard since 1965. A new era will then have begun in earnest 21st Century psychedelic research! November 15, 2004. At the request of our Institutional Review Board (IRB), MAPS has established a Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) that works for MAPS reviewing the data from Dr. Mithoefer's MDMA/PTSD study on an ongoing basis. The DSMB met today to review the charts from the first five subjects who have completed their final follow-up evaluation. Essay Roles? which takes place two months after the second experimental session. The DSMB concluded that We did not see any significant adverse events that caused us any concerns about the safety of on migration this study. Sociology Gender Roles? They recommended that the study continue without modification.

The next scheduled meeting of the DSMB will take place after the next five subjects (the 6th-10th) have completed their final follow-up evaluations. Theory Of Knowledge? The DSMB will also meet if there is a serious adverse event. November 10, 2004. The Lahey Clinic Institutional Review Board (IRB) met this evening to review the MAPS-sponsored pilot study designed to explore the use of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with anxiety associated with advanced cancer, to be directed by co-investigators Dr. John Halpern, Dr. Todd Shuster, Dr. Essay Gender Roles? Umadevi Naidoo, and Dr. Arthur Siegel.

This protocol has to be reviewed and approved by both the IRB at McLean, where the psychotherapy and photography experimental sessions will take place, and by the IRB at Lahey Clinic, where Dr. Shuster works and from where the subjects will be recruited. After the protocol was introduced by Dr. Shuster, Rick Doblin, Ph.D. and Dr. Gender? Halpern responded for about 30 minutes to a series of thoughtful and important questions from members of the IRB. The protocol and second, short informed consent form (covering just the initial screening process at Lahey) were then. approved! We've already gotten approval from the McLean Hospital IRB at Harvard Medical School (see Oct. 27, 2004 entry), so now it's on to the essay on migration in india FDA. We expect to submit the documents to sociology, FDA within the theory 2011 next week to sociology essay, ten days. FDA must, by regulation, respond in some manner within 30 days.

The McLean IRB approved the shortened informed consent form for the MAPS-sponsored pilot study designed to explore the use of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in essay questions 2011 subjects with anxiety associated with advanced cancer. October 26, 2004. Harvard Medical School's McLean Hospital Institutional Review Board (IRB) met to review the MAPS-sponsored pilot study designed to explore the use of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with anxiety associated with advanced cancer, to be directed by co-investigators Dr. John Halpern, Dr. Todd Shuster, Dr. Umadevi Naidoo, and Dr. Arthur Siegel. The protocol was. Gender? approved! The only conditions were that that the approval was subject to essay's, FDA and gender roles DEA approval, and we were requested to shorten (!) the informed consent form. October 12, 2004.

As a result of a FOIA request made earlier this year, MAPS now has information on National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funding awarded to Dr. George Ricaurte and Dr. College Essay? Una McCann in 2003 for the study of MDMA (Ecstasy) neurotoxicity and functional consequnces of sociology essay gender Ecstasy use. Theory Essay? The pair of Johns Hopkins researchers were awarded over $1.8 million dollars during 2003. Sociology Essay Roles? This brings their total government funding to more than $16.4 million since 1989.

October 8, 2004. The October 8-14 Boston Phoenix features an interview with MAPS' president Rick Doblin Ph.D. Theory Essay Questions? that discusses, among other things, ongoing research into the therapeutic effects of MDMA, psilocybin, and marijuana. September 30, 2004. The Salt Lake City Weekly published a piece on Ecstasy Therapy. The piece includes interviews with two therapists practicing underground MDMA-assisted therapy, and an interview with Rick Doblin Ph.D., president of MAPS. September 27, 2004. Wired published a piece charting the progress of essay gender research into the therapeutic uses of pilote essayeur automobile psychedelic drugs, including the ongoing studies of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in people with PTSD, psilocybin in people with OCD, and psilocybin in cancer patient with anxiety, as well as planned studies into MDMA-assisted therapy in gender roles people with anxiety associated with advanced stage cancer, and psilocybin and of knowledge essay questions LSD in people with cluster headaches. September 14, 2004. The journal Movement Disorders has recently published two letters in response to a report of parkinsonism in a former ecstasy user, and include a reply from the authors of the case report. The two letters include a letter authored by MAPS' Lisa Jerome and Rick Doblin and MDMA/PTSD study principal investigator Michael Mithoefer, and a report of sociology essay gender a transient dystonia appearing after Ecstasy use.

In their reply to both letters, the essay questions 2011 authors acknowledge the likely rarity of essay movement disorders associated with Ecstasy use, but fail to discuss the lack of evidence for a relationship between Ecstasy use and movement disorders. August 20, 2004. The second experimental session for the 4th subject in the MDMA/PTSD study took place today. The session went very well. The next Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) meeting will take place after the on migration 5th subject has completed the final follow-up testing, two months after that subject's 2nd experimental session.

August 16, 2004. Dr. John Halpern submitted a lengthy response to the questions that we were asked to address by the IRB reviewing the MDMA/cancer anxiety study. Now we wait until the sociology essay IRB meeting at the end of affirmative August to see if there are more questions. We're feeling hopeful about an eventual resolution of all the issues. August 15, 2004. Essay Roles? Medicine Hope for Psychedelic Drugs, an essay article from BBC News (UK Web), by Arran Frood, discussed psychedelic psychotherapy research supported by Heffter Research Institute and roles MAPS. Of Knowledge 2011? This article is mostly based on an interview with Dr. Roles? Charles Grob and leaves the college essay impression that it's about time that research into the therapeutic uses of psychedelics has resumed. August 10, 2004.

MAPS' Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) for the MDMA/PTSD study met today to review the data on the first five subjects who participated in at least one experimental session. The DSMB was comfortable with the sociology data, and 2011 has recommended that the study continue as designed, without any modification. August 6, 2004. . The third subject in roles the MDMA/PTSD study participated in the second (and final) experimental session. The experimental sessions have all been scheduled on Fridays, which is working out to be a convenient time and gives subjects the weekend to rest and reflect. August 4, 2004. The Charleston, South Carolina Post and Courier published an article about the MDMA/PTSD study. While the article overemphasizes the supposed dangers of MDMA, it does at least give the essay in india impression that MDMA may indeed have therapeutic potential. Dr. Mithoefer has written a letter to the editor clarifying some misleading statements made in sociology essay gender roles the Post and Courier article. The Post and Courier also published another article on the history of psychedelic research. On August 8, the Post and Courier printed the following correction: A story on Page 1A of photography essay's Wednesday's editions of The Post and Courier incorrectly stated that Dr.

Michael C. Mithoefer was administering Ecstasy to patients. The story should have made it clear that the drug was being given to research subjects. Essay Gender? The federally approved research program is unrelated to Mithoefer's private practice and patients. Dr. Essayeur Automobile? Mithoefer also notes that the story would have more appropriately drawn a distinction between dangerous recreational use of Ecstasy and controlled clinical studies if it had noted other studies, including three US studies approved by the FDA, that found no serious adverse events and no evidence of neurotoxicity in tests administered under medical supervision.

July 28, 2004. Sociology Essay Gender? The McLean IRB meet on Wednesday to review the MDMA/cancer anxiety study. They have some concerns that we need to address but it seems like they are rather straightforward issues so it's possible that we will get approval at next month's meeting. If so, then we will start seeking the man essay rest of the approvals (from an essay IRB at affirmative the Lahey clinic where the oncologist works and where the subjects will come from, FDA and DEA). July 25, 2004. A front page article in the Sunday Baltimore Sun discussed MAPS' MDMA psychotherapy research in sociology essay gender a favorable light, illustrated with a photo of Rick Doblin. Of special note is the conclusion, in which Dr. George Ricaurte says that MDMA may one day find a place as an accepted medication. On July 29, the Sun published a clarification to the article. July 21, 2004. Dr.

John Halpern has integrated preliminary comments from the McLean IRB and theory submitted revised versions of a protocol, informed consent, treatment manual, and the most recent update of the MDMA literature review (January 2003-March 2004) for his MAPS-sponsored proposed study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with anxiety related to advanced-stage cancer. July 9, 2004. The third subject participated in his first experimental session in Dr. Mithoefers' MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD study, without any adverse side effects. Several additional subjects are also scheduled to participate in their first experimental sessions during this month. July 6, 2004. Roles? MAPS' effort to man essay, start research at essay gender Harvard into essay the use of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with anxiety associated with advanced cancer began a new phase today, as Dr. John Halpern submitted a draft of the protocol to sociology essay gender roles, the McLean Hospital Institutional Review Board (IRB) for preliminary review. We anticipate several months of review and pilote discussion before we will be able to sociology roles, determine if the protocol will be accepted. If so, the study then moves to the Lahey Clinic IRB for further review (Dr. Todd Shuster, oncologist co-investigator, works at Lahey Clinic and will refer subjects to participate in the study), and then on to the FDA.

We're hoping that this study will be the vehicle to restart psychedelic research at Harvard again, for the first time since 1965! June 28, 2004. In India? Dr. John Halpern of Harvard Medical School's McLean Hospital submitted a protocol for review to the McLean Institutional Review Board (IRB) for a MAPS-sponsored study of essay gender roles MDMA in the treatment of anxiety in advanced stage cancer patients. After years of laying the essayeur groundwork for this study, and months of sociology essay roles protocol development, we have now formally begun the effort to essay's, open a new area of research for MDMA and to essay gender, restart psychedelic research at essay Harvard for the first time since 1965. If the McLean IRB approves the study, the protocol will then go to the IRB at Lahey Clinic, where oncologist and co-investigator Dr. Todd Shuster works and from where the subjects will be referred into the study, and then on to FDA. We anticipate that this study will take three to six months to essay, become fully approved and hope to start treating the first subjects in late 2004 or early 2005. Before MDMA was criminalized in 1985, several psychiatrists and therapists worked with cancer patients with MDMA with positive results in affirmative terms of reduced anxiety and pain. In the 1960s and early 1970s, LSD was also used successfully in the psychotherapeutic treatment of cancer patients.

MAPS work to resume this line of essay roles research at Harvard represents an extremely important effort to start a new era of psychedelic research, at a culturally symbolic place where many people think psychedelic research went off the track, evidenced by Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert (Ram Dass) being kicked out of pilote Harvard in sociology essay 1963. After almost 40 years in the proverbial wilderness, its time for psychedelic research to return to Harvard! May 14, 2004. The second experimental session took place today for the second subject. (Due to scheduling complications, the first subject's second session is scheduled for man essay, next week.) The session, which went very well, is the last experimental session for this subject. She will receive some additional non-drug psychotherapy and essay roles a final follow-up evaluation two months from now. May 13, 2004. Nature publishes a lengthy article and editorial about MDMA psychotherapy research. The articles, about which Rick Doblin has written a lengthy commentary, are supportive of MAPS' research efforts. Alex Gamma wrote a letter to the editor responding to claims of insufficient knowledge of extent of risks in human trials made in the piece and providing greater detail on a human trial of affirmative essay MDMA described in the article. May 3, 2004.

Rick Doblin met in Jerusalem with Dr. Miki Reiter, Israeli Ministry of Health, about MAPS' proposed Israeli MDMA/PTSD pilot study in subjects with war and sociology essay roles terrorism-related PTSD. Dr. Reiter is pilote essayeur supportive of the project and welcomed MAPS offer to donate $75,000 to fund the pilot study. May 2, 2004. Essay Roles? An Israeli dentist who survived a suicide bombing in a Jerusalem cafe in March 2002 that killed about in india, 11 people met in gender person with Rick Doblin in Jerusalem. The dentist contacted MAPS last week after searching the internet for photography, pages about essay gender roles, MDMA and PTSD. The dentist, who has permanent hearing loss but wasn't otherwise seriously wounded, developed PTSD after the bombing.

After treatment with psychotherapy and SSRIs that was only moderately helpful, he discovered on his own that MDMA was of major benefit to him. Theory? He contacted MAPS since he felt it was a shame that MDMA had been available to essay gender roles, him only illicitly and at risk to his professional license. After a long discussion, he surprised Rick by mentioning that the place he had chosen for their meeting was the same cafe in photography essay's which the bombing had taken place. He has written a report, which is followed by additional comments from Rick. April 30, 2004. Rick Doblin met in New York City with Israeli psychiatrist Dr.

Moshe Kotler, the Principal Investigator of MAPS' proposed Israeli MDMA/PTSD pilot study in subjects with war and terrorism- related PTSD. Now that the US study is fully approved, Dr. Kotler feels the time is essay gender roles right to competition, move forward with the protocol design and approval process for sociology gender roles, the Israeli pilot study. Dr. Kotler used to college competition, be the chief psychiatrist for the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF). April 23, 2004. The second subject participated in her first experimental session (MDMA or placebo). Each subject will receive two experimental sessions, two to three weeks apart, in additional to essay gender roles, about 8 non-drug psychotherapy sessions. This study is now well underway and is moving forward steadily.

April 19, 2004. This is the 61st anniversary of the world's first planned LSD experience. On Monday, April 19, 1943, at 4:20 PM, Albert Hofmann ingested 250 micrograms of LSD and neither he nor the world was ever the same again. Albert was trying to determine if an odd experience he had on college, Friday, April 16, 1943, was related to sociology gender roles, the LSD that he was synthesizing. Turns out, it was! April 16, 2004. Historic Days! The first experimental session in MAPS' MDMA/PTSD study took place today. Photography Essay's? Both the subject and sociology essay the experimental team guessed that the substance that was administered was MDMA instead of the placebo. Theory Of Knowledge Essay? In any case, the sociology essay roles session was remarkably therapeutic and pilote automobile seemed to represent a breakthrough for the subject.

Sixty-one years ago, on gender, April 16, 1943, the world's first LSD experience took place due Dr. Albert Hofmann's accidental ingestion of some of the essay chemical that he was synthesizing. The date of the first experimental session in the MDMA/PTSD study was set several weeks ago. The coincidence of that date being the 61st anniversary of the world's first LSD experience was unintentional, but fortuitous. September 24, 2002. John Mendelson, M.D., Associate Professor at University California San Francisco, commented on essay gender roles, Michael Mithoefer, M.D.s proposed MDMA study. Mendelson states that the man essay risk of heart valve changes after two MDMA exposures, as suggested in the study protocol, are very low. April 9, 2004. MAPS issues a report based on documents obtained through Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests showing that from 1989-2002, Drs.

Ricaurte and McCann received federal grants totaling over $14.6 million dollars for MDMA and MDMA-related research. (A FOIA request for gender, 2003 data has been submitted.) This is a rather amazing amount of island man essay money and sociology gender suggests that Drs. Ricaurte and McCann had some powerful incentives to exaggerate the risks of MDMA. This also speaks volumes about our society's warped priorities in man essay that not a single penny of federal money has been awarded to explore any of the therapeutic uses of MDMA. This is an imbalance that MAPS hopes to rectify over the coming years. April 6, 2004. In an article in sociology essay gender roles Talon News (bringing the conservative message to essay, America), the fundamentalist drug warrior, Rep, Mark Souder, Chairman of the sociology gender roles House Government Reform Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources and author of the of knowledge questions 2011 infamous law that denies educational loans to students with a prior drug conviction, has strongly criticized Peter Jennings's Ecstasy Rising documentary. Sociology Essay Roles? Rep. Affirmative Essay? Souder's criticisms of Peter Jennings' lack of a moral compass demonstrate yet again that the Drug War is a holy, moral crusade where facts are subjugated to ideology. The first psychotherapy session with the first subject took place today! In addition, a second subject passed the screening process and has qualified for sociology gender, the study.

This study is definitely underway, full speed ahead. April 5, 2004. Video archives of the Peter Jennings special, Ecstasy Rising, are now available. April 1, 2004. Ecstasy Rising. Federal Campaign to Curb Club Drug Use Hasn't Dimmed Its Popularity, ABCNEWS.

March 30, 2004. A new study of MDMA self-administration in monkeys found MDMA to be far less toxic than assumed from previous studies. Study findings suggest that when monkeys take doses of MDMA similar to those used by Ecstasy-using humans, there are no signs of island man essay harm to roles, serotonin or dopamine cells. Study findings also suggest that monkeys, like humans, may slowly lose interest in taking MDMA over time, and that this change of heart is not a sign of island brain toxicity. March 24, 2004. A DEA-licensed pharmacist, a Randomization Monitor, and Dr. Mithoefer are creating the MDMA and placebo capsules today for use in the MDMA/PTSD study.

The process is being filmed by a camera crew from ABC for sociology gender roles, use in a feature story about the MDMA/PTSD study to be aired on World News Tonight at 6:30PM EST on April 1. Later that evening Peter Jennings' Ecstasy Rising documentary will be broadcast at 10PM est/pst, 9PM cst/mst. March 16, 2004. IRB approval was extended another six months, to September 15, 2004, or until the first Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) report is available. Approval is photography essay's conditional upon review of the sociology essay data on automobile, an ongoing basis by the DSMB. The first DSMB report will take place after the first subject has participated in the first experimental session and before any subject has had their second experimental session. This first DSMB meeting will most likely take place in essay late April or early May. The second DSMB report will take place after the first five subjects have undergone the first experimental session. The third DSMB report will take place after the first five subjects have completed their final follow-ups, the fourth after the 6th-10th subjects have completed their final follow-ups and the fifth and final scheduled meeting will take place after the 11th -15th subjects have completed their final follow-ups. Unscheduled meetings will take place if ever there is a Serious Adverse Event (SAE). March 12, 2004. MDMA arrives!

Today the tiny amount of MDMA required for the MDMA/PTSD study (4 grams) arrived, shipped with all the appropriate DEA forms and procedures. Patients are being scheduled for affirmative, screening to see if they meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. This study is roles now fully underway. The tentative date for island man essay, the first experimental session is April 16, completely coincidentally the same date that, in 1943, Albert Hofmann first accidentally discovered the psychedelic properties of LSD. March 10, 2004. The Ecstasy Factor - Bad Science Slandered a Generation's Favorite Drug. Roles? Now a New Study Aims to Undo the Damage, by essayeur automobile, Carla Spartos, Village Voice. This is a strong, hard-hiting article.

March 4, 2004. Jose Carlos Bouso has been invited to participate in a Spanish TV program on March 12, 2004, along with the following other guests: - The Director of the Spanish Antidrug Agency (Plan Nacional sobre Drogas). - The Director of the Madrid Antidrug Agency. - The President of the Help Against Drug Addiction Foundation (FAD, Fundacion de Ayuda Contra la Drogadiccion), the most important private organization against drugs in essay roles Spain. - One famous Spanish sociologist expert in drug abuse.

Jose Carlos has an excellent opportunity to raise the issue of the willingness of supporters of the essay's Drug War to suppress science and ignore the welfare of PTSD patients in order to sociology gender roles, support Drug War propaganda. The Drug Policy Alliance reports on DEA approval of the MAPS' sponsored MDMA/PTSD study. DEA Accedes to in india, Ecstasy Test by Kristen Philipkoski, Wired News. This article contains a remarkable quote from sociology essay roles, George Ricaurte giving qualified support for the MDMA/PTSD study. March 1, 2004. The Israeli newspaper, Maariv, published an article about the approval of the MDMA/PTSD study, entitled United States Approves Ecstasy to Treat Trauma: The FDA says the party drug will be used to treat people who have been sexually assaulted by Alex Doron. February 26, 2004. One of pilote essayeur most important national Spanish newspapers (El Mundo) published an article regarding the final approval of the US MDMA/PTSD study in its Science section. The article is quite favorable and also tells that the MAPS-sponsored Spanish MDMA/PTSD study was shutdown for political reasons. We will continue to struggle to reopen the Spanish MDMA/PTSD study.

CNN Show: American Morning, 7 AM. Dr. Drew Pinsky thinking too reductionistically_ about the use of MDMA for the treatment of PTSD, . it's quite legitimate. I think the idea that it creates a psychological effect may be somewhat naive, the idea that somehow people are more open to looking at the narrative around their trauma because of the sort of subjective effects of the drug, that, to me, is kind of naive because it's so biologically powerful. It's almost like looking at electric shock therapy again.

February 25, 2004. Rick Doblin was the sociology essay roles guest in essay a live email chat on sociology gender, the Chronicle for Higher Education website. To read the exchanges, see the transcript. Corrections and comments on the CNN announcement by man essay, Ilsa Jerome, Ph.D and Rick Doblin, Ph.D. Watch the sociology gender roles CNN announcement (RealPlayer is required) February 24, 2004. The DEA issued Dr.

Mithoefer a Schedule 1 license. The first MDMA-assisted psychotherapy research project since MDMA was criminalized in 1985 now has the necessary regulatory approval from the FDA, the man essay IRB and the DEA and can proceed. February 23, 2004. MAPS donated $11,000 to McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, for Dr. Halpern's work on sociology essay gender, the protocol design and approval process for a study of on migration in india MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in gender subjects with anxiety as a result of end-stage cancer, with outcome measures to evaluate anxiety, pain and quality of life. MAPS has previously donated $15,000 to McLean for this study on pilote, June 2003.

We plan to submit the protocol to the McLean IRB before the end of Summer 2004. Ecstasy Agonistes A retracted study on sociology roles, a controversial substance raises questions about the reliability of government-sponsored research on theory essay questions, drugs, By Thomas Bartlett, Chronicle of Higher Education. The Chronicle of Higher Education's February 25, 2004 colloquy live email chat with Rick Doblin is gender roles available in the Chronicle archive. February 18, 2004. Inching closer! Dr.

Mithoefer spoke with Dr. Belinda Hayes at DEA headquarters. She indicated that DEA has received a fax of the document they need from FDA but not the hard copy which they need to issue the license. She says the pilote person at FDA claimed to sociology essay, have mailed it 2 weeks ago. She said it should only be a matter of days once they get the document before they get it entered into the system and photography essay's then issue the license. January 27, 2004. Dr.

Mithoefer received a call from DEA indicating they have not received the official reply from FDA yet in response to their request for a consultation. However, they know that FDA recommended that he be given a Schedule I license and as soon as DEA receives the official reply, they will be issuing his Schedule I license. This is the first time we have heard from the DEA that Dr. Mithoefer will receive his license and the study will be able to move forward. January 26, 2004. NIDA responds to MAPS' FOIA request for documents about Dr. Ricaurte's MDMA research. January 16, 2004. Rick Doblin has written a paper discussing how the risks of MDMA neurotoxicity have been exaggerated by sociology gender, government officials and government-funded scientists in a manner that has been used to support prohibitionist policies. Read a critique of a recently published study of self-reported memory problems in Ecstasy users, along with additional comments. You can also view the full text of the report in PDF format.

January 15, 2004. Essay? MAPS received a call from sociology essay gender roles, FDA reporting that DEA's request for a consultation about Dr. Mithoefer's qualifications to conduct research has finally arrived at FDA. Furthermore, FDA's recommendation has already been sent back to DEA. We are inching ever closer. According to the Code of Federal Regulations [section 304(a) of the Act (21 U.S.C. Theory Essay 2011? 824(a))], DEA must issue Schedule I licenses to researchers with FDA-approved protocols within 10 days of DEA receiving a recommendation from FDA that an applicant is qualified to do the research, unless the applicant can be denied on any of the gender grounds specified in section 304 (a) and has either 1) lied on the application, 2) been convicted of a drug felony, or 3) no longer has State registration to administer controlled substances. Since none of these criteria apply, we may be quite close to being able to start this study.

However, there could be some delays caused by pilote essayeur automobile, the uncertain amount of time between when FDA sends its recommendation to DEA and when DEA acknowledges receiving it, with interagency mail notoriously slow. MAPS will now work to expedite this process however we are able. January 14, 2004. Dr. Essay Gender? Michael Mithoefer has been flown to New York City and is being interviewed today for the upcoming prime-time Ecstasy documentary being created by Peter Jennings' documentary team. We're encouraged that a large national audience will learn of our efforts to conduct MDMA psychotherapy research. The documentary will probably be aired in late February or March. January 13, 2004. We're still waiting on DEA to issue Dr. Mithoefer his Schedule I license.

DEA claims it is waiting to pilote essayeur, hear from FDA regarding a requested consultation about Dr. Mithoefer's qualifications to conduct research. We've inquired at FDA to determine whether DEA's request for sociology essay gender, consultation has actually arrived yet and, if so, when FDA will reply. We expect to hear back from FDA shortly. According to the Code of photography essay's Federal Regulations, DEA must issue a Schedule I license for sociology, FDA-approved research within 10 days of receiving favorable recommendation from FDA unless the applicant has lied on affirmative, his application, has had a drug-related felony conviction, or no longer licensed by the State. Since Dr. Mithoefer cannot be refused his license on any of these grounds, we're cautiously optimistic we will be able to start the study shortly after FDA responds to DEA's request for consultation. January 6, 2004. MAPS submits a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request to gender, FDA seeking copies of all correspondence between FDA and affirmative either the DEA, the Office of National Drug Control Policy, or the Partnership for sociology essay gender, a Drug-Free America, regarding the MDMA/PTSD protocol.

We'd like to see what, if anything, these organizations have been communicating to essay's, FDA regarding this study. December 17, 2003. Dr. Mithoefer learned today that on December 11, 2003, the sociology essay South Carolina DEA office submitted its recommendation to DEA headquarters that it give Dr. Mithoefer his Schedule I license for the MDMA/PTSD study. DEA headquarters told Dr. Pilote? Mithoefer last week that it is still waiting to receive a recommendation from FDA's Controlled Substances Staff but we have no information as to whether the FDA has actually received DEA's request for a consultation. Step by step we move closer to starting.

December 7, 2003. A recent media report appeared, making some unduly alarming claims about MDMA and DNA mutations. However, the sociology claims turn out to man essay, be false. Read a commentary on the research and gender roles what it actually meant. You can also read the full text (PDF) of the original research report. Science Gets Recruited in the Drug War, by Ronald Bailey. Reason Magazine Online. Rick Doblin, President of college essay MAPS, published these comments on the NYT article. The Drug Policy Alliance have issued this related press release today. November 28, 2003. Essay Roles? The politics of rEsearch by Harry Shapiro, is published in island the Nov/Dec issue of the British magazine, Druglink.

This article reports that Ricaurte's mislabeling error came to light when a student attempted to replicate the sociology essay study and then made an official complaint when permission to publish the new findings was denied. In order to verify if this was accurate, Rick Doblin called the Johns Hopkins press office and essay on migration was informed that Dr. Ricaurte says that there is no substance whatsoever to this allegation. November 26, 2003. Essay Gender Roles? MAPS sent a letter today to NIDA Director Nora Volkow, Ph.D., responding to a November 18, 2003 letter from essayeur automobile, Dr. Volkow to Rick Doblin. Sociology Gender Roles? This exchange of competition letters was part of a package of essay roles material that MAPS sent today to members of NIDA's National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse (NACDA) requesting that NACDA recommend to NIDA that it release information about the MDMA research of Dr.

Ricaurte. Dr. Volkow indicated in her thoughtful but careful letter that she didn't think it was necessary for NIDA to proactively release the photography information about the MDMA research of Dr. Ricaurte that MAPS requested and noted that MAPS will obtain some information as a result of essay gender roles its Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request. In reply, Rick Doblin noted that, NIDA should be forthcoming with the information requested. Essay's? To do otherwise leaves the impression that NIDA is not actively and aggressively trying to clear up this disturbing episode that has damaged the credibility of NIDA's educational efforts regarding the risks of MDMA and other illegal drugs.

November 24, 2003. Roles? The British newspaper The Guardian published a positive article today about MAPS' progress towards final approval of competition our MDMA/PTSD study. Later today, BBC Scotland will interview me about the MDMA/PTSD study during its drive-time rush hour show. BBC World News just called about sociology essay gender roles, doing an interview that it will send out tonight to stations all over the place, and BBC London called for its Five Live national show. Also, the youth station in affirmative Dublin, Ireland (Spin1038) will conduct an sociology essay interview. Essayeur? Just the gender struggle to obtain permission for the study is presenting us with some good opportunities to do public education about MDMA.

The BBC published this news article today on its highly regarded website. November 21, 2003. Editorial published in Movement Disorders by theory of knowledge 2011, Stephen Kish, Ph.D., What is the Evidence that Ecstasy (MDMA) Can Cause Parkinson's Disease? This strong editorial examines the evidence that ecstasy can cause Parkinson's and suggests that the evidence is essay roles very weak. It also critiques the flawed McCann/Ricaurte PET evidence that MDMA causes substantial reductions in college competition serotonin transporter. November 15-17, 2003.

MAPS' MDMA/PTSD research team met in gender roles Charleston, South Carolina to review the forms and procedures that will be used to conduct the study. The meeting went extremely well. Amy and Todd, the clinical research monitors who are volunteering to help us implement pharmaceutical-level monitoring and checks and balances, were impressively professional. This study will be conducted with a level of formality and oversight that MAPS is implementing for the first time but that will become standard on essay competition, all our MDMA research projects. November 12, 2003.

Dr. Mithoefer receives his Schedule I research registration (R1) from South Carolina's Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC). Dr. Mithoefer is still waiting on his DEA Schedule I license, which is all we need to get started with the study. November 10, 2003.

RTI denies it made mistake that torpedoed results of a $1.3M study. Sociology Roles? Triangle Business Journal, by pilote automobile, Leo John. October 28, 2003. DEA Inspection goes very well. Several DEA agents inspected Dr. Mithoefer's facility today as part of gender roles DEA's review of his application for a Schedule I license to handle the 3.5 grams of MDMA needed for photography, the entire study. Essay Gender? The inspectors focused on issues of diversion control and checked out the safe, the alarm system and the forms and procedures that will be used to track all of the MDMA and placebo capsules. The DEA agents were interested in helping Dr. Mithoefer understand and follow their rules and were quite reasonable. Dr. Mithoefer was told he will probably receive his license in several weeks to man essay, several months.

October 23, 2003. Sociology Essay Gender Roles? Protocol Improvements Recommended by IRBs. Though MAPS' long series of interactions with multiple IRBs was often frustrating, several improvements have been incorporated into on migration the protocol design as a result of recommendations/requirements made by various of the IRBs. MAPS has prepared a document listing these improvements, with the primary ones consisting of having patients remain overnight in the treatment facility which will be staffed by an RN, having data periodically reviewed by an independent Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB), requiring subjects to take a quiz after reading the informed consent form to sociology essay, make sure the primary risks were understood, and requiring a minimum score on the questionnaire assessing the severity of PTSD that reflects a moderate severity. October 20, 2003 MAPS sends a letter to on migration, all members of the National Institute on Drug Abuse's National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, requesting that it recommend that NIDA release all the roles information about Dr.

Ricaurte's research that MAPS has requested in its Freedom of college essay competition Information Act (FOIA) request. (also in sociology essay gender roles Word format) October 17, 2003. Promising news from DEA. DEA has now scheduled an inspection of Dr. Mithoefer's facility on October 28, by photography, agents from both the regional DEA office and the South Carolina Bureau of Drug Control. This is sociology essay gender a routine step in the processing of a Schedule I license. It's encouraging to see that DEA is theory essay questions finally moving forward with its responsibilities, now that IRB approval for the protocol has been obtained.

October 14, 2003. An article by Kelly Morris, entitled Concern over research reawakens ecstasy neurotoxicity debate is published in sociology gender roles the journal Lancet: Neurology Vol 2, November 2003. October 9, 2003. Nature publishes a short news story (PDF and HTML) on the MAPS sponsored MDMA/PTSD study. Nature 425, 552 (09 October 2003) MAPS has a few comments on the article. October 8, 2003. Could MDMA help people with Parkinson's disease ? A recently published study in marmosets suggests that MDMA can reduce side effects of some medicatios used in the treatment of PD. October 2, 2003.

MAPS responds to Ricaurte et al.'s retraction letter. MAPS addresses the evidence that Ricaurte et al. cite in their retraction letter in essay which they fail to give up the ghost and make a feeble attempt to claim that MDMA could, after all, actually cause dopaminergic neurotoxicity and Parkinson's Disease. October 1, 2003. MAPS Submits FOIA Request to NIDA. MAPS receives a confirmation letter from sociology essay gender, NIDA's Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) staff that it has received our request for specific information about the studies that Drs. Ricaurte et al. conducted with genuine MDMA that failed to find dopaminergic neurotoxicity, and about the studies that were conducted with the mislabeled bottles of MDMA and methamphetamine. The letter seems to indicate that there is a good chance that NIDA will release most or all of the information we requested, but that remains to be seen. September 23, 2003. Triumph. The Institutional Review Board (IRB) reviewing Dr. Mithoefer's MDMA/PTSD protocol made its final decision -- and approved the study!

This is a historic moment for MAPS and for MDMA research. The approval marks the end of affirmative essay a three-month process with this IRB, and a 22-month IRB process overall. Dr. Mithoefer and essay gender roles MAPS have been struggling to automobile, obtain IRB approval since November 2001, when the FDA approved the study. This is the essay roles eighth IRB to pilote essayeur automobile, which we've tried to submit the protocol.

Five refused to accept it for sociology essay, review (after varying periods of consideration), one approved it then revoked that approval for photography essay's, political reasons, and another finally tabled the roles review, after spending months formally reviewing the study before making it clear, through unreasonable demands, that the committee did not want to essay questions 2011, approve it. Essay Gender Roles? Along the way, we also established a MAPS IRB, but fortunately, we didn't need to use it. The last remaining step before we can begin the study is for Dr. Mithoefer to obtain a DEA Schedule I license. DEA received Dr. Mithoefer's application more than 15 months ago. We hope to receive a license somewhat quickly now that IRB approval has been obtained, but you can never tell with DEA. After Dr. Mithoefer does obtain a Schedule I license, we can finally begin the study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

September 18, 2003. MAPS sends a letter to NIDA Director Nora Volkow noting the many unanswered questions in the Ricaurte et al. retraction and requesting the release of additional information. MAPS states that the credibility of NIDA is at stake. These sentiments are also expressed in a powerful editorial just released by the scientific journal, Nature. September 6, 2003. Amazing Retraction! Dr. George Ricaurte retracted his paper published in photography Science on essay gender roles, Sept. 27, 2002. Photography Essay's? He originally claimed that MDMA caused severe dopaminergic neurotoxicity in primates injected with a common recreational dose regimen of MDMA, and suggested that Ecstasy users could develop Parkinson's.

Dr. Essay Roles? Ricaurte now reports that his research team administered methamphetamine instead of essay in india MDMA to his monkeys, a mistake which came to light after he failed to replicate his findings after the oral administration of MDMA of even higher doses of MDMA to additional monkeys. Sociology Essay? Dr. Ricaurte's claims were challenged by MAPS in an exchange of essayeur automobile letters in Science in June 6, 2003. Those letters, and a series of media articles about essay, today's retraction can be found here. September 5, 2003. George Ricaurte, Ph.D.'s retraction of his paper Severe dopaminergic neurotoxicity in primates after a common recreational dose regimen of essay's methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is published in Science. August 25, 2003. For the last several months, another independent Institutional Review Board (IRB) has been reviewing Dr. Michael Mithoefer's MAPS -sponsored MDMA/PTSD protocol. Essay Gender? Today, we submitted our response to college competition, another series of sociology essay gender questions and theory of knowledge 2011 a revised protocol and informed consent form.

We anticipate hearing from the IRB in several weeks. MAPS had considered forming its own IRB and had written a set of required standard operating procedures and sociology obtained commitments from affirmative, a group of illustrious people to serve on the MAPS IRB. However, before launching the essay roles MAPS IRB, we decided to theory of knowledge questions 2011, try one more time with an essay Independent IRB. So far, this IRB has restored our faith in the IRB review process since the review is being based on competition, the scientific merits of the design. If MAPS does obtain IRB approval, the final step in the approval process will be for Dr. Mithoefer, the Principal Investigator, to obtain a DEA Schedule I license to handle a total of sociology gender roles 3 grams of MDMA for administration to all the subjects in the study (12 subjects will each receive a dose of 125 mgs on two occasions, three to essay's, five weeks apart, with another 8 subjects will receive placebo on two occasions, also three to five weeks apart). While DEA has held up Dr. Mithoefer's application for a Schedule I license for MDMA for over a year, and has previously indicated that it might refuse to approve Dr.

Mithoefer's license on the grounds that it considered the study not to be in roles the public interest, we have more recently gotten the impression that DEA will indeed approve the license once IRB approval for the protocol has been obtained. A legal analysis submitted to DEA by island, MAPS President Rick Doblin has been helpful in that it showed that the sociology gender roles Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was written by a Congress that was suspicious the DEA would seek to block medical research into pilote automobile Schedule I drugs, which has indeed turned out to sociology gender, be the case. Fortunately, the CSA does not permit the DEA to take the vague category of public interest into account when it reviews applications for college essay competition, Schedule I licenses for roles, FDA-approved research but is restricted to using a much more limited set of criteria relating exclusively to whether the physician can be trusted to administer the drugs to the research subjects and essay's not divert any to non-medical uses. While nothing can be predicted with certainty, it seems that MAPS' 17-year struggle to start MDMA psychotherapy research (MAPS was founded in essay gender 1986) may finally be successful within the photography essay's next several months. Time will tell. June 19, 2003. Drs. Mithoefer, Jerome and Doblin have written a reply to the Ricaurte et al. letter published in Science on June 6, 2003. We have submitted our reply to Drs. Ricaurte and McCann and roles indicated that we would be happy to man essay, post their response to the MAPS website if they want to continue this debate. Read more.

June 9, 2003. MAPS donated $15,046.25 to McLean Hospital, affiliated with Harvard Medical School. The donation is to enable Dr. John Halpern to develop a protocol for the use of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in the treatment of anxiety and depression in end-stage cancer patients, and for work related to sociology essay roles, obtaining approval for the study from the McLean Institutional Review Board (IRB) and the FDA. The donation will support a portion of photography essay's Dr. Essay Roles? Halpern's time from theory 2011, now until the sociology essay roles end of December 2003. If this project is approved, it will represent the first psychedelic research at essay competition Harvard since 1965 and will signal the beginning of the post-Leary era. June 6, 2003.

Letters in Science. An exchange of essay letters about MDMA dopaminergic neurotoxicity between the MAPS MDMA/PTSD team and the NIDA-funded research team of Ricaurte et al. College Competition? appeared in the journal Science, June 6, 2003, Vol. 300, p. 1503-4. MAPS has already submitted to sociology essay, Science a request for a correction to theory of knowledge essay questions, a misleading statement in the Ricaurte et al. letter, in which only one of the primates was claimed to have died from the doses of sociology essay roles MDMA administered, as compared to two primates reported to have died in the initial paper. For details, see MAPS' discussion of the pilote essayeur automobile Ricaurte et al. study.

MAPS is in sociology essay the process of preparing a response to the Ricaurte et al. letter for the MAPS website and Forum. In brief, Ricaurte et al. College Essay? state that dopaminergic deficits will only gender roles be found in binge users, but then discount all the studies in heavy MDMA users that found no dopaminergic changes by saying that they contained no or only a few binge users. This raises the obvious question of just how common is this binge use pattern, since they allege in the title of affirmative their paper that the doses they administered to the primates represented a common recreational dose regimen. Ricaurte conclude their letter by sociology gender, saying that we remain of the opinion that there are not sufficient data to conclude that clinical MDMA research can be conducted without running the man essay risk of monoaminergic brain neural injury. Sociology Gender Roles? First, it's impossible to pilote essayeur automobile, ever prove that there is no risk. Sociology Essay? Nevertheless, by affirmative, Ricaurte et al.'s own admission that binge use isn't even the same as heavy use, it is possible to conclude that there is no evidence that the clinical use of MDMA will in any way cause dopaminergic neurotoxicity or lead to Parkinson's. Note also that Ricaurte et al. conclude with a general statement about both serotonergic and dopaminergic risk, and dismiss as being unpublished evidence from sociology essay, Dr. Franz Vollenweider's PET scan study that showed no evidence of serotonin changes in MDMA-naive subjects administered doses of MDMA in the therapeutic range. April 11, 2003.

Yet Another Dead End. The new IRB informed MAPS today that it has decided not to accept the protocol for review. Pilote? MAPS was clearly told in writing a month ago that this IRB would accept the protocol for review. Now, after we spent all the staff time to prepare and submit the necessary documents and yet another month has gone by, that decision is reversed. Gender Roles? We were told that the on migration IRB believes that the local IRB has to essay, take responsibility. However, there is no local IRB, since the project is not affiliated with any local institution. A fear of essay on migration liability was also mentioned. This is also rather puzzling since MAPS has been able to arrange for an insurance policy for several million dollars that would indemnify the IRB from lawsuits, in the extremely unlikely event that a subject in the study would choose to sue the IRB.

Proposing to research a potentially beneficial use of one of the most demonized drugs in America, and around the world, could be considered a fool's mission. But it's not, it's just extraordinarily difficult and extraordinarily important. After all, MDMA-assisted psychotherapy really can promote healing in a unique manner unlike any other prescription medicine. A moment of despair is essay now in on migration in india order, after which MAPS will select a new strategy for moving forward with this project. March 7, 2003. Essay Gender? Yet Another New Start. A new IRB has reviewed the documents from the first two IRBs that led to dead-ends and agreed to review the protocol. Documents were submitted, with feedback expected in a month or so. March 6, 2003.

A Decision to on migration, Let the Review Stay Tabled. Two weeks have passed without MAPS receiving an estimate for the costs of consultants from the IRC-IRB. In any case, MAPS has decided to let the review remain tabled, not to pay for consultants, and start over with another IRB. We didn't immediately inform the IRC-IRB since we expected to hear any day about the essay gender roles costs of the photography consultants, at which time we planned to explain our decision. The proverbial straw that broke the gender camels back was that the IRB indicated that even though a majority of its members agreed that MAPS has offered persuasive arguments against man essay, the use of a CRO and the multi-site design, the panel will not withdraw those suggestions unless and until an unanimous decision is reached after a report from consultants on seemingly unrelated matters.

After waiting until March 25 without being informed of the costs of the consultants, over essay gender a month after MAPS requested in writing that these costs be provided, MAPS sent a letter to the IRC-IRB saying that we were withdrawing the application. MAPS then learned that the staff person at essay the IRC-IRB with whom MAPS has primarily interacted has left the IRC-IRB for reasons unrelated to our protocol. March 3, 2003. No Decision Unless Unanimous, and essay After Consultation. The IRC-IRB sends a letter indicating that it needs to receive the advice of consultants before making a decision on the issues of the CRO and island man essay the multi-site study. Gender? While the IRC-IRB does indicate that a majority of the man essay members of the panel find MAPS' arguments that a CRO is not needed to be compelling and sociology essay that a majority are willing to consider abandoning the request for a multi-site study, we are told that no decision will be made unless it is unanimous, which MAPS is claimed to have previously agreed to on migration in india, though this was never mentioned before and is not standard practice.

February 25, 2003. A Request for A Decision. MAPS phones the IRC-IRB and requests that the panel make a definite decision on essay, whether it would require MAPS to hire a CRO and/or move to a multi-site design, neither of which MAPS is willing to on migration in india, do, before MAPS decides whether to pay for consultants which the letter from the IRC-IRB seems to indicate would be focused on issues unrelated to sociology essay gender roles, the need for a CRO and a multi-site study. February 21, 2003. Photography? IRB Review Tabled. The IRB informed MAPS that it cannot proceed with its review until it obtains the advice of sociology roles two qualified, objective psychiatric consultants, with fees for the consultants required to be paid by MAPS.

An estimate of costs will be submitted to MAPS for essay on migration in india, approval prior to sociology gender roles, the IRB's engaging the services of these consultants. February 14, 2003. More Documents. MAPS submitted a document detailing our standardized procedures for responding to agitated subjects, or those with suicidal ideation associated with study procedures. We also submitted a document discussing the photography essay's $175,000 bid that we received from a Contract Research Organization (CRO) for monitoring the study, along with information about the volunteer who would monitor the study for MAPS who had the exact same credentials as the person who would be assigned by the CRO. February 10, 2003. An Exhaustive and Exhausting Reply. MAPS submitted a twelve page basic reply (which included in a bit of comic relief a required menu of the snack foods and drinks that we would offer to subjects on the MDMA therapy days and our plans for handling the issue of food-related allergies), and assorted other documents including a letter from the researcher conducting the screening and outcome measures explaining that he had never met Dr. Mithoefer in person and had no particular interest in essay roles MDMA an eight page informed consent form for the friend/partner who would pick up the subject after the MDMA session a release form for sharing of subject's personal medical information a wallet card for subjects showing there had participated in essayeur a legal MDMA research project in case they were drug tested for any reason in the several days after the experimental sessions during which time they might test positive for gender roles, MDMA or amphetamines, and questions 2011 a confidentiality agreement for sociology gender, any physicians or therapists who referred subjects to the study. February 6, 2003. A Rapid Response.

MAPS submitted a six page response focusing just on the issues of the of knowledge questions Contract Research Organization and the multi-site study requirements, to be following up within a week or so with a more detailed discussion of these and other issues raised by gender roles, the IRC-IRB. February 4, 2003. An Astonishingly Depressing Response. After the extensive discussions and college competition good feelings of the January 28, 2003 in-person meeting, at which we seemingly discussed all the gender roles outstanding issues, the totally surprising reply sent by the IRC-IRB came with several scientifically misguided new demands. One of in india these (hiring a Contract Research Organization to essay roles, take over island man essay the conduct of the study to avoid unconscious bias) was unusual, exorbitantly expensive and essay roles unnecessary since the study was already a placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study, with blinded, independent raters. Another (redesigning the study into a multi-site study with two different therapeutic teams) would probably not even be approved by the FDA since single-site studies to standardize the intervention precede multi-site studies. The IRC-IRB response, which included quite a few other requirements, indicated a profound misunderstanding by the IRC-IRB of the essay in india generally-accepted scientific research process and communicated that the IRC-IRB was deeply fearful of sociology gender roles approving this protocol. Though I (Rick Doblin) am by automobile, nature happy and optimistic (which some friends of mine have teasingly referred to as evidence of MDMA brain damage), the IRC-IRB response resulted in two days of a dark depressive funk, the gender likes of which I haven't felt for almost 30 years, back when I was working through early difficult LSD experiences. The resolution of the depression came with the decision to throw myself into responding in detail to essay's, the IRC-IRB letter, in the hopes that a clearer presentation on our part of the qualifications of our research team members, the logic behind our protocol design choices, and a willingness to give the IRC-IRB whatever information it asked for, would result in a return to generally-accepted scientific research principles.

January 31, 2003. A Productive Dialogue. The January 28 meeting with the new IRB, at which Dr. Michael Mithoefer and Rick Doblin, Ph.D. Essay Gender Roles? appeared in person, involved a series of essay on migration in india thoughtful questions about sociology essay gender roles, protocol design, risk assessment, confidentiality procedures and island man essay the nature of PTSD and currently available treatments. The meeting was characterized by mutual respect.

We expect to receive a written report outlining the IRB's decisions within the next several weeks. January 21, 2003. A Substantive Reply to IRB. MAPS submitted a series of documents today to the IRC-IRB, in response to their initial comments about the protocol which MAPS received on January 6. These documents represent a very substantial amount of staff time on MAPS' part and include a twenty page primary response letter, a five page protocol summary, a two page plan for external evaluation, a two page phone script for the initial screening calls from potential volunteers, and a sixty page updated review of the MDMA literature published since our initial review was completed. Dr.

Michael Mithoefer and sociology roles Rick Doblin will meet in person with the IRB review panel on January 28 to discuss the essay on migration issues under consideration. January 21, 2003. History Lesson for the DEA. MAPS submitted a letter to DEA from Rick Doblin concerning Dr. Michael Mithoefer's July 2002 application for a Schedule I license to possess the MDMA that will be used in the MDMA/PTSD study. Sociology Essay Gender? DEA has indicated that it has safety concerns that need to essay questions, be addressed before it will issue the license. Sociology? However, DEA is only legally charged with diversion control (preventing drugs approved for medical use to be diverted to non-medical uses) and has no legal mandate to review safety concerns, which are the island man essay responsibility of the FDA. In 1994, DEA tried to use similar arguments to justify its delay in issuing a Schedule I license to Dr. Donald Abrams for his FDA-approved marijuana/AIDS wasting study. Fortunately, FDA Commissioner Dr. David Kessler protested to gender roles, Dr.

Lee Brown, Director, Office of National Drug Control Policy (the Drug Czar), who wrote a letter to DEA Administrator Tom Constantine reminding him that DEA has no authority to man essay, review scientific matters. Dr. Brown told DEA that established lines of responsibility and authority should be respected and that national policy was to sociology roles, permit research with Schedule I drugs. Island? MAPS' letter reminds DEA of this history and urges it to respect the national interest in essay facilitating, and not obstructing, important research into new treatments for PTSD. January 6, 2003. Renewed hope. Theory Questions? Today, MAPS received the essay gender roles initial set of comments of the IRC-IRB. My initial impression is that we will eventually be able to affirmative essay, get some protocol approved, but that we might need to limit enrollment to more severe PTSD patients who have failed on psychotherapeutic treatments as well as an SSRI, and are 21 or older. We have been requested by the new IRB to provide a substantial amount of additional information.

We hope to sociology gender, submit our response within several weeks for the next review, which Dr. Michael Mithoefer and I will probably attend on either January 28 or February 4. Despite the additional work that is ahead of photography essay's us, it's a profound relief that the new IRB is willing to approach this issue based on the science. December 17, 2002. A New Start. MAPS submitted the MDMA/PTSD protocol for review to the Independent Review Consulting Institutional Review Board (IRC-IRB), with the protocol to be discussed by the review board on January 2, 2003. Officials at the IRC-IRB have read the essay gender roles entire correspondence between MAPS and in india the Western IRB and have indicated that they will carefully review the protocol on sociology essay, its merits without bias due to the controversial nature of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy research. College Essay? This IRB has a reputation for being rigorous but fair, a set of characteristics that inspires confidence. December 10, 2002.

A Shameful Conclusion. On November 20, after the roles Western IRB decided not to review MAPS' MDMA/PTSD protocol, Rick Doblin spoke to photography, James Baldwin, Ph.D., Executive Director of the Western IRB. Dr. Baldwin informed Rick that he was not authorized to speak about what motivated the Western IRB to decide not to engage in a dialogue about the rationale for WIRB's decision to revoke approval, to essay gender roles, refuse to continue to photography essay's, review the protocol, and to refund MAPS' fee. Instead, Dr. Baldwin suggested that for gender, more information, Rick should contact Mr. Ron Warren, Senior Vice President of the Western IRB.

After Rick Doblin made repeated attempts over several weeks to speak with Mr. Warren, his secretary finally informed Rick Doblin on affirmative essay, December 10 that he was unwilling to speak and essay gender had nothing to add to the letter. So it ends, with a shameful silence. November 27, 2002. MDMA/PTSD Research in Israel. Essay? MAPS sent a draft of the MDMA/PTSD pilot study that MAPS is seeking to sponsor in Israel to Dr. Moshe Kotler and Dr.

Jorge Gleser, Israeli Ministry of gender Health, for their review. MAPS' conference on MDMA/PTSD research, held at Beer Yakov Mental Health Center near Tel Aviv on essay in india, November 14 for members of the Israeli Ministry of Health, the essay Israeli Society of Addiction Medicine, and essay's the Israeli Anti-Drug Authority, was very well received. Sociology? The conference and the proposed pilot study were discussed in a positive article mentioned on the front page of Maariv, Israel's second largest newspaper. The protocol design meeting, held at Beer Yakov on Nov. 17, was also productive, with the draft protocol submitted today reflecting design choices made at that meeting. November 20, 2002. Pathetic News.

Ron Warren, Senior Vice President of the Western IRB, wrote a letter to Dr. Michael Mithoefer, reporting the outcome of the November 19 meeting of the WIRB's Executive Policy Committee. The WIRB letter was two short sentences, The Western Institutional Review Board, Inc. (WIRB) has made the decision not to provide institutional review board services for the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS). Please find enclosed a refund of your previously paid fees, along with the material you submitted for photography essay's, IRB review. The WIRB retreated from its supposed scientific rationale for revoking approval for MAPS' MDMA/PTSD study, as described in its September 6, 2002 letter and critiqued in MAPS' October 10 letter, and sociology essay gender fell back on no rationale whatsoever. The WIRB has shown itself to be scientifically out of its depth and lacking of sufficient integrity to essay's, acknowledge its mistakes and refocus on a rational, data-based, risk/benefit analysis of MAPS' MDMA/PTSD protocol. Most importantly, MAPS will very soon start the process of submitting the protocol to another IRB for review.

November 18, 2002. MAPS submitted a short letter to the Western IRB's Executive Policy Committee, in advance of its November 19 meeting at sociology gender roles which it will discuss its review of MAPS' MDMA/PTSD protocol. Man Essay? The letter discussed MAPS' Israeli MDMA/PTSD project, briefly reviewed US government and gender roles international treaty policies regarding research with Schedule I drugs, and reported that MAPS had submitted unpublished data to FDA about MDMA and heart valve tissue, data which the WIRB cited as partial justification for man essay, revoking approval which neither MAPS nor FDA had seen. October 17, 2002. A Surprising New Issue. Essay Roles? After reviewing MAPS' letter, Dr. James Baldwin of the WIRB informed RIck Doblin that the October 30 meeting was canceled, but not for the reasons MAPS had hoped. Dr. James Baldwin said that the meeting was premature because the WIRB now needed to convene its Executive Policy Committee (EPC) to discuss whether the affirmative essay WIRB should be involved with research with Schedule I drugs. The next EPC meeting is scheduled for November 19.

The WIRB is no longer reviewing the protocol based on the science but on non-scientific, internal policy issues, not a very encouraging development. October 11, 2002. A Comprehensive, Strong Response. Sociology Roles? MAPS submitted a lengthy written response to essay's, the WIRB letter, along with 14 letters of information and support from sociology essay gender roles, MDMA scientists around the world. MAPS' letter addressed every point raised in the WIRB letter and was so solid that we thought perhaps the WIRB would conclude that the October 30 meeting was not necessary. October 3, 2002. A Glimmer of Hope. Rick Doblin speaks with James Baldwin, Ph.D., Executive Director of the WIRB. Dr. Baldwin apologized for the tone of the essay's WIRB letter and seemed to view favorably MAPS' arguments.

He was informed that the one scientist whom the WIRB letter claimed was against the study was actually in favor of the study (subject to two conditions that MAPS could easily agree with), that the roles second scientist cited in the WIRB letter was strongly in favor of the study, and that the third scientist was probably not fully informed about the details of the protocol and photography was neither opposed to or in favor of the study. Dr. Baldwin tentatively scheduled a meeting between Rick Doblin and sociology Michael Mithoefer and the WIRB for October 30, in Olympia, Washington. September 27, 2002. Outrageous News. College Competition? Dr. George Ricaurte publishes an article in Science reporting on primate data that he claims suggests that even one night's recreational use of gender Ecstasy can lead to Parkinson's. This government-funded research, which ignored the high mortality rate of the test animals and island directly contradictory human data, is a classic example of risk amplification and the demonization of illegal drugs. MAPS obtained a copy of this article before publication and responded by sending out our first press release ever. MAPS' critique was favorably reported in articles in the New York Times and Washington Post and elsewhere.

MAPS has also written a letter to the editor of Science. September 6, 2002. Terrible News. The Western IRB, which approved the MDMA/PTSD protocol on July 10, informed us by letter that approval was withdrawn. The revocation was based on secondhand reports of conversations (not on sociology, data!) that a WIRB staff person had with three MDMA researchers. Photography Essay's? The WIRB letter was written in a surprisingly insulting manner and contained numerous mistakes. MAPS was not informed that the protocol was being reevaluated and did not have an opportunity to respond to the reports by the WIRB staff person, who didn't like the essay fact that the WIRB had approved the protocol. July 17, 2002. Tremendous news. On July 10, we received word that the Institutional Review Board (IRB) had approved MAPS' MDMA/PTSD study! We can now definitely say that the US study will take place.

Dr. Michael Mithoefer still needs to obtain his DEA Schedule 1 license, which should take about essay questions 2011, 4-6 weeks, but this is just a matter of time. There is now an excellent chance that the Israeli Ministry of Health will approve an essay gender Israeli MDMA/PTSD study. Island? Michael and essay I are tentatively planning to go there in late Sept. or early Oct. for a one-day seminar organized by the Ministry to discuss the latest findings in essay's MDMA research, and protocol design options for the Israeli study. Here are the financial implications: We still need to raise an additional $60,000 for roles, the US MDMA/PTSD study and island man essay another $60,000 for the Israeli study. MAPS is also seeking $10,000 for sociology essay roles, our National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) grant application for support for the development of a treatment manual that describes in essay in india detail hw MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for PTSD should be conducted and provides specific ways to evaluate whether the therapy technique itself is sociology essay roles being delivered appropriately. Island Man Essay? We are also seeking $20,000 for our ongoing MDMA literature review.

Any help or suggestions would be greatly appreciated. June 19, 2002. MDMA/PTSD protocol submitted to the Western Institutional Review Board (WIRB). Review expected to take 3-5 weeks. June 14, 2002. FDA gives final approval to conduct the sociology roles treatment sessions in Dr.

Michael Mithoefer's office, with a crash cart and an Emergency Room doctor and nurse in the next room in case they are needed. May 14, 2002. Conference call with Dr. Mithoefer, Rick Doblin and FDA o fficials, in which we come to tentative agreement to conduct the study in Dr. Mithoefer's office, as long as we hire both an ER doctor and pilote automobile nurse to sit in the room. May 10, 2002.

FDA rejects our request, primarily saying that they would like a larger emergency response team. March 14, 2002. Essay Gender? Request submitted to FDA to change the theory 2011 location of the treatment sessions from the Medical University of gender roles South Carolina (MUSC) to Dr. Mithoefer's office. We propose renting a crash cart and hiring an emergency room nurse to be on site in the room next to the treatment room for the first five hours of theory essay each session, in case Dr. Sociology Gender? Michael Mithoefer and Annie Mithoefer, R.N. Affirmative Essay? need help responding to sociology, an adverse event. November 28, 2001. The fourth patient in the Spain MDMA/PTSD dose-response study was treated on essayeur, November 28, 2001. We have now completed the 50 mgs dose group (3 patients received 50 mgs and 1 received a placebo). The next dose level is 75 mgs (5 patients will receive 75 mgs and 2 will receive a placebo). November 2, 2001.

It's my pleasure to report some excellent news. Essay Roles? About 10 AM, Friday, November 2, FDA contacted me to affirmative, say that MAPS' MDMA/PTSD protocol was approved. This approval marks the culmination of 16 years of efforts to sociology essay roles, obtain permission from FDA for MDMA-assisted psychotherapy research, since MDMA was criminalized in 1985. This approval also marks the beginning of what I hope will be a $5 million, 5-year project to develop MDMA into a prescription medicine. On Wednesday, Dr. Michael Mithoefer, the principal investigator, and I had a conference call with FDA during which we discussed various design issues. The conference call was calm, serious and respectful. We agreed to make several design changes, mainly closer monitoring of blood pressure and omitting the opportunity for placebo subjects who still met inclusion criteria for PTSD at college the final evaluation to enroll in an open label extension study during which they would receive MDMA. We argued against several other possible changes, mainly the idea that patients should be required to have had prior experience with MDMA.

On Thursday, I faxed an gender roles addendum specifying the changes we had agreed upon and the places where the protocol needed to be changed. Last night, I saw on CNN that anthrax was discovered in the FDA mailroom at Rockville, where the FDA officials reviewing the protocol work. Pilote Essayeur Automobile? Today, FDA officials were still at work and informed me that the protocol was approved without the need for any additional changes. Of course, we still need to obtain Institutional Review Board approval from the Medical University of South Carolina. This should take several additional months. I've already let the Israeli Ministry of Health know that the FDA approved the study. According to roles, Dr. Moshe Kotler, the principal investigator of the proposed Israeli MDMA/PTSD protocol, FDA approval was need for an MDMA/PTSD study before he would feel comfortable submitting a protocol to the Ministry.

The subjects in the ongoing Spain MDMA/PTSD study are women survivors of sexual assault with chronic PTSD. The subjects in the FDA-approved study are women and men survivors of criminal assault with chronic PTSD. The Israeli study will hopefully include subjects whose PTSD was the result of war and terrorism. The formal approval letter from FDA will arrive next week. Questions? -- Rick Doblin, Ph.D. October 1, 2001. Sociology Gender? MAPS submitted to the FDA today the protocol for Dr.

Michael Mithoefer and Dr. Mark Wagner's MAPS-supported pilot study into the use of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in the treatment of patients who have experienced criminal victimization and as a result have suffered from chronic, treatment-resistance posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The submission of this protocol to pilote, FDA marks a major milestone in the history of MAPS, and hopefully in the history of MDMA research. FDA has 30 days to respond to the protocol. We fully expect FDA eventually to approve the study in some form. (Faster download - without individual case reports from essay roles, Phase 1 study; longer version - with individual case reports from Phase 1 study) July 18, 2001.

As part of its submission to FDA of a protocol designed to study the theory 2011 use of MDMA in the treatment of PTSD, MAPS' commissioned an extensive review of the scientific literature on MDMA. This literature review was developed under the direction of Matt Baggott with Ilsa Jerome, Ph.D., and is now being made available to regulatory agencies, other researchers and the public. The literature review will be updated on a regular basis as new research is published. July 16, 2001. A draft of the MDMA/PTSD protocol that MAPS has been working for 2 years to essay, develop, with Dr. Island? Michael Mithoefer and Mark Wagner, Ph.D., at the Medical University of South Carolina, has now been posted to the web. The protocol will submitted to FDA shortly after NIDA's scientific meeting on MDMA, held at the National Institutes of Health campus in sociology essay roles Bethesda, MD, on theory essay questions 2011, July 19-20.

If and when it becomes approved in some form, this protocol will be the first FDA-approved study of the therapeutic use of MDMA since MDMA was placed in Schedule 1 in 1985. March 19, 2001. The US Sentencing Commission held an open hearing concerning its proposal to increase penalties on MDMA. Testimony about MDMA opposing the increase was presented by Rick Doblin, Ph.D., David Nichols, Ph.D., Charles Grob, M.D., Julie Holland, M.D. and Richard Glen Boire, Esq. Testimony about legal issues by opponents of the increase was presented by Ed Mallet, Executive Director of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers (NACDL), Julie Stewart, Executive Director of essay Families Against Mandatory Minimums (FAMM), and Bill McColl, Legislative Director of The Lindesmith Center/ Drug Policy Foundation (TLC/DPF). The testimony had little effect and the Sentencing Commission recommended substantial increases in of knowledge penalties.

MDMA is now, dose for sociology essay roles, dose, punished more heavily than heroin. Judge Diane Murphy, Chair of the U.S. Sentencing Commission, explained the rationale behind the Commission's recommendation during a hearing of the Senate Caucus on International Drug Control on March 21, 2001. Photography? (See also visual presentation) February 3, 2001. MAPS convened a protocol design meeting in San Francisco to discuss the details of a protocol evaluating the use of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in the treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Essay? The meeting included. among others, the principle investigator and therapists of the essayeur South Carolina team (Dr. Michael Mithoefer and sociology essay roles Annie Mithoefer, RN), the essay on migration in india MAPS team that has for essay gender, the last year and a half been reviewing the MDMA literature for submission to FDA (Matt Baggott, Ilsa Jerome), the team that has been creating the MDMA bibliography of all scientific papers on MDMA published in peer-reviewed journals (from erowid.org), and scientific consultants including Dr. Charles Grob, Dr.

George Greer, and Dr. Dave Nichols. The meeting was quite productive, with the protocol expected to be submitted to pilote automobile, FDA in April 2001. February 2, 2001. Rick Doblin outlines MAPS' strategy for the development of the therapeutic use of MDMA into an FDA-approved prescription medicine, at sociology gender the State of Ecstasy conference in pilote San Francisco, sponsored by the Lindesmith Center- Drug Policy Foundation. Additional transcripts of other speakers have been helpfully archived by sociology essay gender roles, an anti-drug group. November 9, 2000. The first patient was treated in the MAPS-supported MDMA/PTSD study being conducted in Madrid, Spain, under the director of Jose Carlos Bouso, Ph.D. candidate.

Jose Carlos and Marcela Ot'alora were the co-therapists. The four hour session went very well and on migration in india the patient seemed to have gotten to a deeper, more therapeutic level. Of course, we won't know for some time whether the patient received a dose of sociology gender 50 mgs or a placebo! What we do know is that study is off to a great start. Essay? Read more about this study, including the protocol and informed consent form. November 1, 2000. A Journal of the Amreican Medical Association (JAMA) letter reports on the DanceSafe/MAPS pill testing program (the letter says people paid for their own testing but that was a mistake. MAPS paid for most of the testing of these pills). August 15, 2000. A discussion about Raves, Ecstasy and Youth was held at the Shadow Convention 2000 in sociology roles Los Angeles.

A celebrity panel of MDMA researchers, experts and psychonauts was assembled by the Lindesmith Center/Drug Policy Foundation; video and audio coverage of this unique event can be found at the Shadow Conventions 2000 website. May 5-6, 2000. The California Association of essay's Toxicologists held a conference in North Hollywood, California, the first day of essay roles which was devoted to pilote essayeur, drugs that are commonly found at raves. Read summary and comments by Earth and Richard G. Boire. March 2000 - New York Lindesmith Center.

Hear in RealAudio MDMA ('Ecstasy') Research: When Science and Politics Collide . Sound quality is excellent except for the first few minutes, so be patient. Sociology Essay? Speakers: Julie Holland, MD, attending psychiatrist, Bellevue Hospital Psychiatric Emergency Room and faculty, NYU School of Medicine; John P. Island? Morgan, MD, professor of pharmacology, City College of New York; and Rick Doblin, president, MAPS) and gender roles Ph.D. candidate, Kennedy School of affirmative Government, Harvard University, assessed scientific and political efforts to conduct MDMA research in the US and abroad. See also the transcript of Holland's talk. February 2000 - Spain. A pilot study of MDMA therapy in the treatment of PTSD has been approved and will be the first formal therapy study with MDMA ever conducted. (Read current update. MAPS has pledged $54,000 for this study; we have raised $23,000 and are seeking additional contributions. Autumn 1999 - MAPS Israel MDMA Conference. MAPS organized an international symposium on sociology essay gender, the medical utility of MDMA.

Talks from this event, held August 31 to September 1, 1999, are posted on this site (talks by George Greer, Juraj and essay on migration in india Sonja Styk and Mark Kleiman). See also video clips of some of the essay talks. July 24, 1999 In a teleconference with the FDA concerning MDMA psychotherapy research to essay, treat anxiety, depression and pain in cancer patients, the essay gender FDA indicates a willingness to approve a proof of principle study. MDMA was synthesized in 1912 and patented in Germany by pilote essayeur automobile, Merck in 1914 but was not the subject of human research at that time. In the 1950s it was briefly researched by the U.S. Government as part of the CIA's and sociology essay roles the Army's chemical warfare investigations.

It was forgotten until the middle 1970s when it was rediscovered by the psychedelic therapy community and island man essay began to be used as an adjunct to psychotherapy by sociology essay roles, psychiatrists and therapists who were familiar with the field of psychedelic psychotherapy. MAPS published a book, The Secret Chief, about the leader of this therapy community. In the early 1980s, the drug began to be used non-medically, particularly in Texas, under the name Ecstasy. Both the non-medical and essay therapeutic use of MDMA were made illegal in 1985 despite the Drug Enforcement Administration Administrative Law Judge Francis Young's recommendation that physicians be permitted to continue to administer it to their patients. Rick Doblin, Alise Agar and Debby Harlow helped coordinate the pro-MDMA contingent in the DEA lawsuit. Sociology? For an excellent history of the early use of MDMA, see Pursuit of Ecstasy by Beck and essay Rosenbaum. In 1986, with the goal of developing MDMA's therapeutic potential through FDA-approved protocols, Rick Doblin founded MAPS as a non-profit research and educational organization with the sociology roles mission to act as a psychedelic and medical marijuana pharmaceutical company. MAPS immediately opened a Drug Master File for MDMA with data gathered from the standard preclinical animal toxicity studies required by FDA . Subsequently, five different applications for permission to conduct human research with MDMA were submitted to FDA between 1986 to 1988, to the Neuropharmacologic Drug Products Division directed by essay on migration in india, Dr. Essay Gender Roles? Paul Leber.

All five applications were rejected. Three protocols for double-blind controlled trials were from researchers at, respectively, Harvard Medical School, UC San Francisco Medical School, and essay U. of New Mexico Medical School, and were all rejected. Two applications submitted by individual physicians were for single case studies, one for a terminal cancer patient who had been successfully treated for pain with MDMA-assisted psychotherapy prior to the criminalization of MDMA and the other for a unipolar depression patient for whom all available treatments had been attempted without success. Both of these single-patient INDs were also rejected. The FDA based its rationale for sociology roles, rejecting all protocols and single case studies on the hypothetical risk of functional consequences of potential neurotoxicity from MDMA. MDMA research claimed that the rejection of all efforts to conduct FDA-approved MDMA research was based not on rational risk/benefit assessments but on an underlying cultural prejudice against medical research with drugs that were criminalized and on one or more FDA officials' personal opposition to human research with psychedelics. Since FDA Review Divisions are sometimes described as operating like fiefdoms under the affirmative control of their Directors, proponents felt profoundly stymied. Proponents claimed that concerns about MDMA neurotoxicity, which numerous studies had failed to link with functional or behavioral consequence and which in any case had not been clearly demonstrated to occur at all at therapeutic does levels, were reminiscent of scientific research in the 1960s that claimed to gender, prove that LSD damaged chromosomes.

These reports were effective in generating public disapproval of LSD and in hindering research but were later determined to have no clinically significant effect. MAPS continued to fund animal toxicity studies at Stanford (1986-1988) and human safety studies at Stanford and Johns Hopkins (1988-1991). In 1992, FDA reviewed a MAPS-supported protocol submitted by Dr. Charles Grob, then at UC Irvine, for a study of the island use of MDMA in the treatment of pain, anxiety and depression in cancer patients. FDA's Drug Abuse Advisory Committee recommended that the cancer patient study be postponed and that a Phase 1 dose-response safety study be conducted first. The protocol was redesigned, with FDA giving final approval for the Phase 1 safety study on November 5, 1992. The safety study was completed in 1995. Data from the safety study revealed no unusual risks and sociology gender indicated that MDMA could be safely administered within a clinical research context.

Dr. Grob submitted the first draft of the protocol for the study of cancer patients in 1997. Negotiations with FDA moved very slowly, due to initial FDA decisions to essay, put MDMA psychotherapy research on a slow track to nowhere. However, FDA opposition eventually lessened as MAPS and Dr. Gender Roles? Grob persisted in essay on migration our efforts to sociology essay gender roles, obtain permission for essay in india, research into sociology the use of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in cancer patients.

A July 24, 1999 teleconference with the FDA concerning MDMA psychotherapy research to treat anxiety, depression and pain in essay's cancer patients went very well, with the FDA indicating a willingness to essay, approve proof of principle study. Unfortunately, Dr. Grob's other work-related responsibilities made it difficult for him to find the photography time to work on the approval process for this research project. On March 18, 2000, Rick Doblin and sociology gender roles Michael Mithoefer met at an ayahuasca conference in San Francisco, sponsored by Ralph Metzner, and begin talking about conducting MDMA psychotherapy research in the US. Affirmative? This marks the beginning of their effort to sociology, study subjects with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. On November 9, 2000, the first subject is treated in college Jose Carlos Bouso's MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD study in essay gender roles Madrid, Spain. On May 13, 2002, the Spain MDMA/PTSD study gets shut down due to political pressure, after six subjects have been enrolled in the study without any persisting adverse effects. Dr. Grob subsequently decided to focus on the use of psilocybin, instead of essay MDMA, in cancer patients, on the accurate theory that psilocybin research would be less controversial than MDMA research. Essay Gender Roles? In June 2003, MAPS starts formally working with Dr. John Halpern, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, on photography essay's, the design of a study administering MDMA-assisted psychotherapy to end-stage cancer patients.

Late in 2003, Dr. Grob managed to obtain approval for sociology roles, his psilocybin/cancer patient study. Merck's official history of MDMA: Journal article and media report Historical Articles about MDMA 1984-1993 MAPS in island man essay the Media Archive: 2000-current. Parkinson's Disease MDMA reduces symptoms of Parkinson's. Dr.

David Nichols of Purdue University says The story results from lack of knowledge about what Ecstasy does in the brain, Self Development/General Therapeutic Through the Gateway of the Heart -- a collection of over essay gender 50 personal accounts of the therapeutic/spiritual/personal growth uses of MDMA, first published in 1985. MDMA in a severely disturbed man with psychosis, administered by his brother MDMA helped after therapy, pills and ECT didn't MDMA: a catalyst for healing my fears and essay depression MDMA in a woman with Ovarian Cysts Potentials for MDMA in sociology essay neuromuscular therapy Alleviation of emotional and on migration in india physical pain in an elderly man MDMA as adjunct to therapeutic bodywork. Confessions of a middle-aged Ecstasy eater (son introduces father) A series of letters on MDMA and cancer (daughter introduces father) A Family's Perspective on the Use of MDMA (parents introduce daughter)

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Sociology Releationships And Gender Roles Essay - 879…

37 Quotes from Heroin Users on Addiction and the Struggle to Stay Sober. Photo Credit: Shutterstock.com/ RUSOTURISTO. For a heroin addict, recovery is essay a life-long process. Philip Seymour Hoffman had been clean for 23 years before he relapsed in pilote automobile 2013, and died from an apparent overdose last week. For the sociology essay gender roles, past 26 years I've thought of heroin every day. But never thought of using it. It never made anything better, just worse. Look, every junky is always considering getting clean.

Every junky wants to be clean. Every using junky also wants more heroin. Call it a contradiction call it what you want. But no junky wants the life they have. I woke up last week to theory of knowledge the radio playing quietly. I got ready for essay the trek to the other end of the house to wake up the kid. The 7:30am news came on. I was still sleepy. Affirmative Essay! 'The actor Phillip Seymour Hoffman is dead.' I was only sociology gender half listening. I'd seen his work but have never been one to pay much attention to famous personalities or celebrities. Theory Of Knowledge Essay! 'He was forty-six.' That caught half my attention – the same age as me. 'From a heroin overdose.' There I was, sitting on the edge of my bed with a syringe full of heroin in my hand.

My father died from addiction, we lost a cousin, I myself had numerous overdoses and helped prevent siblings from OD-ing (all of who are now clean thanks to the process of sociology essay roles, one addict helping another that Russell Brand spoke of). Hearing about Hoffman affects me the same way as if it were a friend. I didnt know he was an addict untill he died, but when I heard of essay's, his story and addiction I immediatly identified with him. We work the same way in our minds. Sociology Roles! I know what happened to him before he picked up. I know how he felt. I'm pretty sure it started the same way most relapses do. I live in real fear that I'll relapse. This is what scares me late at night: If somebody like Hoffman had gone so long without smack (heroin), and just jumped back in one day – how close am I to essay doing the same?

I live in gender roles real fear that I'll relapse, and being so much older now, there's no way I'd survive this time around. No one sets out to be a heroin addict. It's not a lifestyle choice. I was a high-profile model and intravenous heroin addict. I copped on the street. Affirmative Essay! Heroin doesn't discriminate. It is unbearably wonderful for surpressing pain and sociology gender generating a false sense of well-being.

I loved heroin. Addicts who say I hate heroin are lying to themselves. Of Knowledge Questions! We wouldn't stick needles in our arms daily if we didn't love the way it made us feel. But when it wears off, you're in a hole so big its impossible to climb out. Sociology Essay Gender! No one sets out to island be a heroin addict. It's not a lifestyle choice. If you are an addict you are either using, clean or dead.

There is gender nothing in between. I have been clean for six years and wish never to return, but drugs are never far away. For me using is like my default setting. I had been clean for about two years and my father had a stroke. I had a wobble as I felt so helpless and needed the support of a bit of gear. I felt so shit the next time I went to see him I knew I couldn't use again. He needed me more than I needed the gear. After all these years, I still have some kind of sick fascination with heroin. Heroin is a very potent drug.

The high feels like a long lasting orgasm. Recovery from pilote essayeur automobile, heroin addiction is almost a miracle. Essay Roles! Because it is not only your body that screams for the substance. Your brain wants it too. Without heroin, emotional pain feels unbearable. Hoffman's death has not resulted in feelings of sorrow, but thoughts and feelings of nostalgia. After been clean for 3 months. I am at a stage now where I'm starting to feel good again about theory essay questions 2011 myself and sociology my life. But Hoffman's death has aroused a whole new fresh public discourse around heroin addiction, and I must say that its effect on me has not resulted in feelings of sorrow, or relief, but thoughts and feelings of nostalgia. Photography Essay's! The fact that nostalgic thoughts and feelings have been aroused from hearing about the tragic death of this great actor, just shows how utterly irrational the addicted mind is. It's not thoughts of relief that I have, such as Wow that could have been me, I'm so lucky.

But rather it is thoughts of essay gender roles, reminiscence; thoughts of how euphoric he must have felt in island those last few weeks of relapse, or even in his last few moments. The addicted mind is sociology roles a selfish mind, no doubt, but also an pilote essayeur utterly helpless one. It's easy to think that because you have been clean and sober for so long that using one time will be OK. It's easy to become complacent in your recovery. I know people who are 40 years clean and sober, and people who've gone only a couple of days, but we are all in the same boat: we are sober today. It's easy to think that because you have been clean and sober for so long that using one time will be OK. It's easy to sociology gender roles become complacent in your recovery. That's why I attend 12-step meetings, so that I dont forget what it was like, to remind myself that I'm only of knowledge essay questions 2011 one drink or drug away from the person I once was.

If I had one drink or one hit, my illness would make me want more and more, something the 'normal' person may not understand. Sociology Essay Roles! Every single time I relapse, my life spins out of control. Theory Of Knowledge! I've lost jobs, crashed my car twice, gone broke, narrowly escaped jail – and sociology essay roles I am one of the fortunate ones. One of the worst things about essayeur automobile a relapse for me is not the loss of money and material things, but the loss of love and trust from sociology gender roles, my family. The 'War On Drugs' has been a dismal failure. Automobile! The best possible outcome of losing a genius like Phillip Seymour Hoffman to drugs is essay getting everyone to examine how the college essay, 'War On Drugs' has been a dismal failure. Sociology Essay! What we need to look at is legalization, regulation, quality control; making rehab centers far more accessible; treating addiction like the terrible disease it is, and not some crime for which being incarcerated is punishment. I wish people would understand that addiction is a symptom. Theory Essay Questions 2011! It's a symptom of sociology, unresolved underlying issues, or an attempt to self-medicate issues like depression or anxiety. My addiction was born out of an intense lack of self esteem and college essay competition severe childhood trauma, and my continued drug use was simply terror at gender, feeling exposed in a world that I felt I had no skills to negotiate. Heroin was a buffer between me and the harshness of essayeur, humanity, and giving it up was the scariest thing I've ever done.

The media's 'It's so sad', 'How could this happen?' style coverage of sociology essay, a celebrity overdose pisses me right off. Photography! I'm the recovering child and grandchild of addicts.The media's 'It's so sad', 'How could this happen?' style coverage of a celebrity overdose pisses me right off, frankly. It's naive, voyeuristic and essay gender roles irresponsible. Everyone ignores the addict's victims completely. Addiction is a family disease. Addicts don't just ruin their own lives. Everyone in the family becomes dysfunctional. There are panicked rushes to inject in public toilets, a desperation to essay on migration hide injection sites from employers and perpetual fear of a crackdown. There are different sides to addiction. There are the gender roles, cold-turkey mornings scanning the streets for the sight of affirmative essay, someone who might be holding, the sociology essay roles, anticipation of a hit, the photography essay's, calm of the sociology essay, high and the inevitable crash into realisation that the money is needed to get that spoonful of brown sugar, make the theory 2011, medicine go down. There is endless waiting for acquaintances whose own broken facades sicken you and remind you of the road you are travelling.

There are bailiffs, policemen and rip-off merchants to contend with. There are panicked rushes to sociology inject in public toilets, a desperation to hide injection sites from employers (if you can manage to keep a job as I did) and perpetual fear of a crack down. Island! It is a vicious trap for the desperate, wounded and impoverished. I spent 14 years begging on the streets, eating out of bins, almost dying from infections and having hell inside my skull. The broken shell of a human I was this time three years ago couldn't have dreamt of the life I have now – it's far from sociology gender, fucking perfect but I can sit on automobile, a bus without worrying that I'm speaking the self-recriminations running through my head without realising it, clenching my jaws to stop myself from sociology essay gender roles, speaking, but disbelieving I'm doing it. I value mself now. Pilote! There is life after drugs and gender roles it's worth living. Once addicted, your life then becomes a dedication to your addiction.

The longer one takes heroin the greater one's tolerance becomes. Eventually, the island man essay, little bags weren't enough to stave off the symptoms of withdrawal, and more and more was required just to get me to work, just to get me to sociology gender roles sleep, just to get through this trauma, just to theory 2011 not feel how miserable I was … and sociology essay roles then that little promise you made to yourself – 'never ever a needle' – begins to get broken down because your tolerance is now so high, smoking the stuff just doesn't touch the island man essay, sides. Welcome to a whole new game of heroin addiction, needle fixation and vein degradation. Now the sociology essay roles, game is in a different league, the complications and ramifications are endless but they all lead to essayeur one road, an gender ever increasing addiction. It's been 17 years this year since I injected my last hit of heroin which most certainly would have been in my neck, the pilote, only veins I could use at that point in gender my addiction. The feeling is almost impossible to explain to photography someone who has never done an opiate. High-profile deaths make me terribly sad, not because I, in anyway, knew the people intimately, but because they remind me of essay, all of the people I have known and lost to drugs. Four young men. I went to high school with three of them: one overdosed in college his senior year, one in his freshman year of college, one last year.

They were all extremely intelligent and sociology essay gifted. It's important to maintain a strong support system. Every time that I hear about an overdose, it makes me even more determined to stay clean and sober. Pilote! It can happen to anyone. Essay! That's why it's important to essayeur automobile maintain a strong support system, work with other addicts and stay connected. It's when you start becoming complacent with your recovery that things can go downhill. When I was living in Amsterdam at the height of sociology essay, my habit, junkies were being fished out of the canals two-at-a-time most weekends. None of us expected to live very long. A lot of scare-mongering goes on in the media about drug use. Pilote Essayeur Automobile! I managed to sociology gender live a quite civilized life while I lived in theory Holland, keeping my works clean and cooking up only the best Chinese and Persian heroin delivered to my door by smiling dealers every day.

There were many people there who led normal lives while addicted to smack and essay gender this is never addressed because a puking Pete Doherty makes for photography essay's better headlines. Heroin encases you in a little cotton-wool house and essay nothing hurts anymore. College Essay! When times are hard, heroin encases you in a little cotton-wool house and nothing hurts anymore. If you haven't put in the work to become truly mindful, it's very easy to relapse. We know what heroin feels like, even twenty or thirty years after a hit. The memory of that wonderful warm feeling remains. I believe in giving up drugs on your own terms.

Now that I am in my mid-thirties the desire to use has lessened. Sociology! Addiction is a continuum and some people must stay away from absolutely everything, including alcohol – even if that wasn't their drug of choice. We all have different levels of personal strength and self control, so I don't believe 12-step programs are for everyone. I believe in giving up drugs on your own terms, and I don't wake up every morning still wanting to use. The cons just always outweighed the pros for me, and I always remind myself of theory of knowledge essay questions 2011, that. That shit just ain't worth it. I have no words of wisdom to offer an sociology essay addict as he destroys everything he loves for essay 30 minutes of nirvana. I am now 35 and for as long as I can remember my father has been injecting heroin. I have never touched illegal drugs.

But I wonder when I will get the call to identify my father's body after he has been found alone in his bathroom with a needle in his arm. What will I say to essay roles my partner (who has never met my junkie dad) or my friends, will I even mention he has died? We are all fighting life and pain. I'm a recovering addict and now student, working towards a degree in criminal justice and licensure in alcohol and essay on migration in india drug counseling. The discussion of high-profile cases always reminds me of the stigma that addiction still carries, even within the system that is essay gender roles meant to rehabilitate. Theory Essay 2011! I think it's a big reason why so many in recovery fall through the cracks. I was essentially babysat for essay roles a couple of in india, weeks by people in sociology essay gender roles Narcotics Anonymous, who fed me, talked to me and took me to meetings until I could look after myself again. I first got clean in 1995.

I relapsed twice in my first year because it took me a while to affirmative essay 'get' the essay gender roles, [Narcotics Anonymous] program. Both times it was over a bloke. I think I thought I couldn't deal with the pain. The last time I relapsed, it only lasted one evening. My boyfriend split up with me and essay on migration I went and scored instead of picking up the phone and sociology taking to a friend or going to a meeting (which is what I'd do now).

A friend turned up while I was smoking some heroin and took it off me, then turned up the photography essay's, next morning to take me to a lunchtime NA meeting. Roles! I was essentially babysat for a couple of weeks by people in the fellowship, who fed me, talked to me, and took me to meetings until I could look after myself again. 17 years and on migration five months later I'm still clean. Addiction is a great equal-opportunities malady. It takes one and sociology essay roles all regardless of class, creed or distinction. I have been in recovery for island man essay 16 years. Sociology Essay! Throughout that time unfortunately I have seen many people relapse some of whom have died.

The high-profile deaths do not affect me any more than hearing about any addict dying. Addiction is affirmative a great equal opportunities malady. It takes one and sociology essay gender all regardless of class, creed or distinction. You get tough from essay, going to so many funerals, you harden to the loss. I learned early on that I will never be cured. I have four sons. The two youngest were born addicts.

My life was a mess and I wrecked my family's life too. I have four sons. The two youngest were born addicts. I was a shoplifter and prositute and couldn't stop using drugs. Gender Roles! I got arrested all the time.

It was a sad lonely period of my life. I finally got involved in an NA fellowship and got clean. Staying clean is now my priority. And no, I haven't relapsed. If something happens to trigger my need, the craving comes back as fresh as it was the very first week of sobriety. When I was using heroin, very few people were aware of college essay competition, it. I was ranked in essay roles the top 4% of my 1000+ high school class and a member of the varsity basketball team; not the most likely suspect for heroin addiction. Now, I always try to theory essay be vigilant for the signs of mental illness in essay gender roles others, and help to support my friends who struggle with addiction and depression as I once did. The temptation of addiction isn’t a constant pull that diminishes over time; it ebbs and flows corresponding with the powerful emotions that lead to such harmful escapism in the first place.

The concept of triggers is theory of knowledge essay 2011 very important to understand; certain events, places, people and emotions serve as a catalyst to sociology essay invoke the temptation to fall back on one’s progress. College Competition! I can go for sociology gender months without being tempted to pilote use, but if something happens to trigger my need, the craving comes back as fresh as it was the very first week of sobriety. It shames me to write this now, but I did continue using – mainlining – for the first few months of the pregnancy. Hardly anyone in my current life knows my history of drug addiction. My close family and just one of essay gender roles, my friends knows. None of college essay competition, my colleagues have any idea and I think would have great difficulty believing it. Sociology Essay! It is theory of knowledge essay possible to turn your life around entirely, even from the sordid world of mainlining hard drugs. I have a good job, a happy marriage and my son is fine despite what I put him through. Essay Gender Roles! That might well have been very different if I hadn't give up when I did. My motivation for affirmative essay giving up was becoming pregnant with my first child (my partner was also a drug addict). Once you've relapsed, the essay, life you had in recovery seems like someone else's.

Addiction has a way of making these REALLY compelling arguments toward self-destruction and isolation. Even in the face of so much evidence to the contrary, addiction will convince you that you don't deserve to live a good life; that everyone close to you would be better off if you just left and that the only thing that will help is to pilote essayeur automobile use drugs. Sometimes I think I would like to shoot up water just to experience the whole ceremony surrounding the gender roles, event. My first thought when reading about theory of knowledge essay questions 2011 PSH was a sort of selfish gratification that there are successful people who have troubles. Addiction crosses all boundaries but as soon as I saw the statement from sociology essay gender, his family, I was consumed with a sense of empathy for the deep sadness they are suffering. I started using when I was 12, by affirmative essay, the age of sociology essay, 36 I was shooting up methadone between my toes. I started using when I was 12, by the age of 36 I was shooting up methadone between my toes as the majority of theory questions, my veins had collapsed. Essay Gender Roles! I have not felt like using for years but that is not everyone's experience. Recovery doesn't make you immune from life. After nine years clean I held my dead son in my arms.

For the life of essayeur automobile, me I could not figure out how shooting heroin would bring him back. That wasn't ok but I am ok. Using doesn't fix anything. I came so close to total disaster. It was like I was walking blindfolded towards the edge of the cliff. At about 28-years-old I found crystal meth and I thought it was just amazing. It made me confident in social situations and roles whereas alcohol had stopped working for me, the drugs made me happy. But I wanted more, and more and more, and competition what was a progression into sociology essay, alcoholism that took about 10 years took only pilote essayeur automobile 1 year into full-blown drug addiction. Within 12 months I went from using ecstasy, then cocaine, then GHB, then meth, and others and it got out of sociology essay roles, control. I still thought I was ok though. I thought I was having an island amazing life with heaps of fun but I didn’t see the complete destruction I was causing to my life.

My first sponsor and I worked out that in that one year of gender, using drugs I spent at least $40,000. In this madness I was still holding down my job and paying my bills. As an college essay addict in my early 20s, I nearly succumbed to several heroin overdoses. For those who cannot comprehend its power, I would tell them that a person can become hooked after using for the first time. It happened to me.

In the summer of 1995, I snorted a bag of gender, China White in a stairwell on St Mark's Place in New York City. Three days later, I was shooting black tar in Golden Gate Park. I was seventeen years old. When I heard about Seymour 'going out' (as we say in theory of knowledge questions 2011 recovery) after 23 years, it scared the crap out of me. Sociology Essay Gender Roles! I have been clean and sober 27 years.

When I heard about pilote essayeur Seymour going out (as we say in recovery) after 23 years, it scared the crap out of me. Sometimes I think I am pretty normal until something like this happens. It keeps me scared straight. I double up on meetings. Pray, work my steps and work with my sponsees. I am one drink or drug away from a relapse . Gender! A living hell if not death. Pilote Essayeur Automobile! Do I have another high in me? Yes. Do I have another clean and sobering up? I don't know.

We get deaths like this every few months, either in the media or in our recovery community. I attend a 12 step program where we were all shaken by the Hoffman overdose. At meetings around the gender, city, that's what we were talking about. But we get deaths like this every few months, either in the media or in our recovery community. Whenever I hear of a celebrity drug death, especially when it relates to smack (heroin), often the first thing that comes to mind is the hypocrisy which surrounds drugs and junkies.

The celebrity drug death is always a victim of some dire life circumstances, a tragic loss of someone who had so much to give, while the junkie on the street somehow chooses to pilote be there and should be locked away. I find it hard to remain vigilant when there is a high-profile overdose. I become obsessed [by high-profile] overdose and wonder what it must've been like to have broken sobriety and sociology essay gender roles fall back into the dark abyss of essay questions, drugs. Sociology Gender! Hearing and reading about college it in the news doesn't make me want to stay clean but it creates these urges to use again. I'm not sure if it's because as an addict I have a self destructive persona or because I miss that dark abyss. All I know is that hearing about roles these high profile over doses doesn't make me thankful to be clean but it brings out the curiosity within me. What if that was me? What if? So Few Americans Understand What the Second Amendment Is Really About—or Its Dark History.

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The Federal Gov#039;t Has Been Paying States to Imprison People: A New Law Could Change That Cruel Policy. This Isn’t Just Another Urban Farm—It’s a Food Bank for the Poor. Sex With My Ex-Husband Was Incredible, but My New Partner Is Dreadful in Bed. Report: Rex Tillerson in of knowledge essay #039;Death Spiral,#039; Will Probably Exit Trump Administration. 7 Most Unhinged Moments from Trump’s Puerto Rico Trip. What Is the Iraqi Kurdish Future After the Death of Jalal Talabani? Iraqi Kurdistan Remains Under Embargo. Google's Threat to Democracy Hits AlterNet Hard. In late June, Google introduced a new algorithm aimed to fight fake news. It sounded like a good idea—until it became clear that Google was targeting progressive news sites fighting racism and fake news. Many progressive sites were hit, but none more than AlterNet, which lost 2.4 million readers this summer, compared with the past two-and-a-half years.

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